Mindmap for revision of enzymes

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  • Created by: emily_w
  • Created on: 06-04-14 12:08
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  • Enzymes
    • Conditions
      • When conditions are not right for enzymes to function, they become denatured
        • Denaturing can involve the amino acid chains unravelling and the shape of the active site changing
      • Temperature
        • Human enzymes work best at the body's core temperature of 37C.
        • Enzymes become denatured above 40C
        • If the body is too hot or too cold, it can cause heatstroke or hypothermia
      • pH
        • amino acid chains start to unravel if conditions are too acidic, or not acidic enough
        • the ideal pH for enzymes vaires depending o their location. Stomach enzymes can function at a higher acidity than mouth enzymes.
    • Types of enzymes
      • Protease
        • found in stomach and small intestine
        • breaks down proteins into amino acids
        • produced in stomach, pancreas and small intestine
      • Lipase
        • breaks down fats and oils into fatty acids and glycerol
        • Found in small intestine
        • produced in pancreas and small intestine
      • Amylase/ carbohydrase
        • breaks carbohydrate down into sugar
        • amylase is the catalyst
        • found in the mouth/saliva
        • produced in saliva glands
    • Industry
      • biological detergents to remove organic stains from clothing
        • do this by breaking down fats, proteins and carbohydrates in stains
      • protease used in baby food to predigest food
      • carbohydrases convert starch to sugar syrup, additive in food products
      • Disadvantages
        • expensive equipment to maintain right conditions
        • pure enzymes are hard to produce
        • specialised equipment to trigger reactions
    • Structure
      • "lock and key"
        • substrate fits into active site so they bind together
          • breaks up molecules for digestion
      • active site is made of chains of amino acids
      • enzymes are proteins
      • carry out reactions to keep body alive, also join amino acids together to make DNA
  • carry out reactions to keep body alive, also join amino acids together to make DNA


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