Standard grade english reading

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  • English reading
    • figurative language
      • language which uses figures of speech for effect, interest or to make things clearer
      • metaphor
        • an unusual comparison where one thing is described in terms of something else
          • his house was now a prison
      • simile
        • an unusual comparison where one thing is described as something else using "like" or "as"
          • he was as dirty as a pig
      • personification
        • an unusual comparison where something non-human (inanimate) is described in human terms
          • the computer had a mind of it's own
      • alliteration
        • where consecutive words begin with the same letter and sound
          • the rapid riffles rattled
      • onomatopoeia
        • where a word makes the sound it describes
          • swish
          • buzz
    • sentence structure
      • basic rules of a sentence:
        • it should begin with a capital letter
        • it should end with a full stop
        • it should make sense
        • it should have a subject
          • "who" or "what" the sentence is about
        • it should contain a verb
        • it should normally begin with a subject
        • the subject should normally be followed by the verb
      • if a sentence does not have the structure: subject then verb it is inversion
        • the subject should normally be followed by the verb
      • the writer might repeat words like conjunctions to suggest a build-up of ideas or to indicate the number of things happening at a given time
      • the writer might leave out the subject or verb for effect
        • this allows the reader to focus on the "action"- the context will have already informed the reader of what is left out
      • the writer might ask a rhetorical question (a question where they do not want an answer) to provoke the reader or to show they are uncertain
      • the writer might use list forms in sentences to indicate a build-up of information
    • reading for a purpose
      • when reading a text you will be expected to:
        • pick out specific, individual pieces of information from the text
          • this means you are expected to identify specific, individual items of information from the text
            • what places look like
            • what reasons are offered for a characters behaviour
        • identify and understand the writer's use of tone
        • understand ideas or feelings the writer presents in a text
        • identify and understand writers attitudes, beliefs and arguement
        • understand the main idea of the passage
        • understand  the writer's use of language
    • punctuation
      • semi-colon (;)
        • connects closely related ideas, sometimes contrasting/separates items in a list
      • colon (:)
        • used to introduce a list, an explanation, a quotation, an illustration-something which completes the idea
      • comma (,)
        • separating marks often used to indicate a list, but also separates clauses or phrases within a sentance
      • ellipsis (...)
        • often used to show a tailing off, shows thought, suspense, rambling or uncertainty
      • dash (-)
        • can have the same function of a colon or used to indicate an unfinished sentence-giving a dramatic break to ideas
      • brackets ()
        • gives additional information, sometimes a person comment or thought
      • parenthesis
        • gives extra, non-essential information
        • identified by two dashes, two commas or brackets with text


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