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    • language change theory
      • linguistic determinism-->language determines thoughts and reflectionism--> language is shaped by our thoughts
      • lexical gaps- the gaps referring to words that are not currently used in English, but fit the linguistic patterns well.
      • random fluctuation and cultural transmission (Charles Hockett)
      • substratum theory - the influences of different forms of language that come into contact with english
      • functional theory - language changes according to the needs of its users
      • Jean Aitchison- 3 language metaphors:
      • Untitled
    • language variation theory
      • social variation theory - Michael Halliday, anti - langauge
      • the difference model- males and females, biologically or by socialization are inherently different.
      • the dominance model- langauge differences due to the historically patriarchal structure of society (pamela fishman) e.g men are higher in society. - Dale Spender
      • the deficit model- states that men and women are not only different, but one dominates the other (men) - Lakoff
      • open and closed networks - Lesley Milroy - network strength
      • koineisation: the creation of a new standard language form by combining two existing dialect forms by language contact. - Paul Kerswill
      • dialect leveling - when dialects become more similar and less distinguished
      • code -switching - the ability of a speaker to 'switch' between different languages in his or her language use
      • sociolinguistic maturation- refers to the age in which a speaker becomes susceptible to the influence of different varieties
        • children are before this maturation and so are more likely to adapt and change their language.


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