EDUQAS on the whole of the water cycle

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  • water cycle
    • water cycle as a system
      • inputs, outputs, mass balance, stores and flows
      • stores
        • sea-level change
        • changes in cryosphere processes
    • temporal variations in discharge
      • base flow, storm flow, simple regime, complex regime
      • factors influencing river regimes
        • physical
          • climate, vegetation, soil, geology
        • human
          • land use, irrigation and use of water, dam construction
      • storm hydrographic
      • flashy hydrographic
    • precipitation and excess runoff in the water cycle
      • causes of air uplift, condensation and cloud formation
        • orographic
        • frontal
        • convection
      • theories of precipitation formation
        • collision coalescence process
        • Bergeron - Findeisenprocess
      • causes of excess runoff generation
        • prolonged precipitation
        • intense rainfall
        • monsoon rainfall
        • snowmelt
        • human causes : urbanisation + deforestation
    • deficit within the water cycle
      • types of droughts
        • meterological
        • agricultural
        • hydrological drought
      • meterological causes
        • utilisation
        • recharge
        • deficit
        • surplus
      • human causes
        • aquifer depletion
          • recharge of aquifers
            • natural recharge
            • artificial recharge
        • surface store depletion
    • drainage basin as a system
      • input - precipitation
      • flows - through flow, stem flow, infiltration, overflow, through flow, percolation, ground water flow, channel flow
      • stores - interception, vegetation, surface, groundwater
      • outputs - evaporation, transpiration, channel discharge into oceans

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