Ecosystems

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  • Created by: livmoss
  • Created on: 27-09-16 13:55
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  • Ecosystems
    • Methods of sampling for distribution and abundance
      • Measuring distribution
        • Quadrat
        • Transect
      • Measuring abundance
        • Directly counting individuals
        • Percentage cover
    • What is an ecosystem?
      • A community of different species that depend on each other and abiotic environment in a sef-contained area.
      • Biotic factors
        • Predator/prey
          • Autotrophic - light or chemical energy to fix carbon
          • Heterotrophic - cannot fix carbon so have to intake complex carbon compounds
      • Abiotic factors
        • CO2 & O2 concentration
        • Water
      • Can be of different sizes
        • e.g. Mini-ecosystem could be a rockpool/tree
    • Biomass
      • Plants to primary consumers
        • Only about 10% efficiency
        • Not all of plant eaten by herbivores
      • Primary consumers to secondary consumers
        • Much of the energy from plant used by herbivore
          • Movement
          • Heat
          • Respiration
          • Reproduction
        • Not all of the herbivore's body is eaten
        • Only about 15-20% efficiency
      • Autotrophs
        • Not much light energy used for photosynthesis
          • Plants dont have pigments to absorb all wavelengths
          • some light refelcted from leaves
          • Some light passes through leaves
      • How humans manipulate energy flow in plants and livestock
        • Maximise energy input
          • Food
        • Maximise growth
          • Water/ fertiliser/ selective breeding
          • Food supplements/selective breeding
        • Control disease
          • Fungicides
          • Antibiotics/ vaccines
        • Control predation
        • Reduce competition.
          • Kill weeds
          • Control competitor species
        • Reduce energy loss
          • Plant with high energy in edible products e.g seeds/fruit
          • Restrict movement/ control body temperature
    • Succession
      • Pioneer species
      • Seral stage
        • Change in environment means more species can grow
          • Pioneer species not the best adapted anymore
            • Pioneer species gets outcompeted
              • Area goes through several stages of different communities
      • Climax community
        • The community that is the final stage of a natural succession
      • Secondary succession is the REcolonisation of an area. e.g. after bush fire
      • Defelcted succession
        • When succession doesn't reach the climax
        • Maintains an early seral stage
        • Grazing animals reduce competition from fast-growing grasses

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