Nucleotides

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  • Created by: ErinRuby
  • Created on: 09-03-16 09:08
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  • Nucleotides
    • Biological molecules that participate in nearly all biochemical processes
      • Made from 3 different parts: phosphate, dexyribose and an organic base
        • 4 bases of DNA: adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine
    • Phosphate esters of pentose sugars
      • A nitrogenous base is linked to the C1 of the sugar residue
        • By covalent bonds formed by condensation reactions
      • A phosphate group is either linked to the C5 or C3 of the sugar residue
        • By covalent bonds formed by condensation reactions
    • Form the MONOMERS of nucleic acids, DNA and RNA
      • RNA: pentose sugar = ribose
      • DNA: pentose sugar = deoxyribose
    • Become phosphorylat-ed nucleotides when they contain more than one phospate group
      • E.g. ADP (adenosine diphosphate)
      • E.g. ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
        • An energy-rich end-product of most energy-releasing biochemical pathways
        • Used to drive most energy-requiring metabolic processed in cells
    • Help regulate many metabolic pathways
      • E.g. by ATP, ADP and AMP (adensosine monophosph-ate)
    • May be components of many coenzymes
      • Adenine nucleotides are components of various coenzymes
        • E.g. NADP (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) which is used in photosynthes-is
        • E.g. NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) which is used in respiration
        • E.g. FAD (flavine adenine dinucleotide) and coenzyme A (both involved in respiration)

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