Digestion

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  • Created by: rm715
  • Created on: 24-04-16 15:30
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  • Digestion
    • Enzymes
      • Biological catalysts made of proteins which increases rate of reaction without being changed or used up
      • Digestive Enzymes
        • Amylase
          • Breaks starch down into glucose
          • Made in salivary glands, pancreas and small intestine
        • Lipase
          • Breaks lipids down into fatty acids and glycerol
          • Made in panceas and small intestine
        • Protease
          • Breaks proteins down into amino acids
            • Functions of Proteins
              • Antibodies - released by white blood cells and help to fight disease
              • Hormones - carry messages round the body
              • Structural Proteins - make up tissues such as muscle
              • Enzymes - control chemical reactions in body
          • Made in stomach {pepsin}, pancreas and small intestine
      • Enzymes have an optimum temperature and pH where their activity is highest. Above this value, they become denatured.
        • When denatured, substrates no longer fit into active site to produce products
    • Bile
      • Made in liver then stored in gallbladder
      • Bile is alkaline so neutralises stomach acid after food enters small intestine
        • Emulsifies fats into small droplets to provide a larger surface area for lipase to break down fats
    • Digestive Organs
      • Salivary gland - produces amylase
      • Stomach produces protease enzyme, pepsin. Pummels food and kills bacteria in hydrochloric acid conditions
        • Digestion - Large molecules are broken down into small molecules then absorbed. This can be done mechanically by teeth and muscles or chemically by enzymes and bile.
      • Liver produces bile which emulsifies fats and neutralizes stomach acid
        • Gallbladder -  stores bile
      • Pancreas produces protease, amylase and lipase enzymes into duodenum.
      • Small Intestine produces protease, lipase and amylase completes digestion. Blood absorbs digested food from here
      • Large intestine absorbs water from food into bloodstream. Indigestible food is excreted through anus.

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