Diffusion

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  • Diffusion
    • Movement of particles from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration across a concentration gradient
    • Lungs
      • Alveoli causes gas exchange
        • Adaptations to maximise diffusion
          • Large surface area
            • To increase the rate of diffusion
          • Moist lining
            • To stop the alveolus from drying & to dissolve gases
          • Thin walls
            • It decreases the path for diffusion which increases the rate
          • Constant blood flow
            • It maintains a concentration gradient
    • Photosynthesis
      • Plants
        • Adaptations to maximise diffusion
          • Flattened shape
            • To increase area
          • Air spaces
            • Increases the amount of CO2 that can diffuse into the cell
    • Gills
      • Gas exchange in fish
        • Adaptations to maximise diffusion
          • Lamallae
            • Increases surface area
            • Lots of blood capillaries
              • It speeds up diffusion
            • Thin surface layer of cells
              • To minimise the diffusion path
          • Gill filaments
    • Digestion
      • Occurs in the small intestine
        • Villi cover the small intestine
          • Adaptations to maximise diffusion
            • Increasing surface area
              • Digested food is absorbed quicker
            • Good blood supply
              • To assist quick absorption of digested food
            • Thin walls
              • To decrease diffusion path
            • Extensive blood capillary network
              • To carry away absorbed nutrients
    • Passive process
      • No energy is required
        • It happens in gases and liquids
    • Factors that affect the rate of diffusion
      • Temperature
        • Higher temperature give the particles more kinetic energy so they move faster which increases the rate of diffusion
      • Concentration
        • Higher concentration of particles increases the rate of diffusion
      • Surface area of membrane
        • If the membrane is thinner the rate of diffusion increases because the path is shorter
  • Big surface area
    • To increase rate of gas exchange
    • Gill filaments

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