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  • Demography
    • Births
      • Trends/facts: Birth rate is the number of births per 1000 people. Birth rate has steadily decreased since 1900. Some spikes in birth rates (after first and second world war)         Recent increase since 2001.
      • Total fertility rate:           The average number of children that women have during their fertility years. All time low at 1.63 in 2001.
      • Reasons for the decline in birth rate:     Changes in the position of women, careers, access to abortion.    Decline in infant mortality rate - the number of children who die before their first birthday (per thousand). Children have become an economic liability, now expensive. Shift from quantity to quality with children.
      • Effects of this decline:        It makes it easier for women to go out to work. Reduces the burden of dependency. Lower birth rate means less public services are required (schools etc.)
    • Deaths
      • Trends/facts: Number of deaths remained fairly stable since 1900. Some spikes in death rates (first and second wars, flu outbreak). Death rate has dropped (number of deaths per 1000 people).
      • Reasons for decline in death rate: Improved nutrition.   Medical improvement (antibiotics, blood transfusions etc.).     Public health measures and environmenta improvement (housing, clean water etc.).   Social changes (decline in dangerous jobs, reduced spreads of infection).
    • The ageing population
      • Trends:       Average age is rising each year.
      • Reasons:       People are living longer.  Declining infant mortality rate. Fewer births means that proportion of older people is increasing.
      • Effects of ageing population: Public services (increase spending is necessary on areas such as healthcare). One-person pensioner households has increased. Dependency ratio has increased.
      • Ageing as a problem - socially constructed:  Society sees the ageing population as a 'problem'. Pension problem is regularly mentioned.  Socially constructed problem could be interpreted as ageist (forcing people to retire).
    • Migration
      • Immigration (people coming to the UK).     Emigration (people leaving the UK).      Net migration (the difference between the two above).
      • Trends/facts:    Until 1980's more people left UK every year than arrived.    Migration has produced a more ethnically diverse society.      Net migration rising in terms of number of people coming into the UK because of the expanse of the European union.
      • Recent and future migration patterns:      Both immigration and emigration rose from 1994 - 2004.  2004 large net migration of 223,000 (expansion of European union).     It is projected that net migration will account for over half of the population growth up to 2031.


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