classification of disability

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  • Definitions and classifications of disability
    • Medical model
      • disability caused by a physical problem
      • try to identify the physical cause and then treat it
      • unchallenged until the 20th century
      • still remains the most dominant view
      • only a concern to the individual
    • social model
      • disability caused by the way society treats a physical problem
        • ie barriers within the environment
        • linked to civil rights movement
          • began in 1980's
            • led to disability discrimination act
        • eg is sign language taught in schools then communication would be easier for the deaf
      • try to identify the social barriers and reduce their effect
        • individual doest receive treatment
          • instead their environment is altered
      • concern to society
    • 1980s classification
      • Rehabilitation
        • A problem solving process aimed at minimising disability and avoiding or minimising the resultant handicap
      • emphasis on
        • causes of ill health
        • identifiable aetiology (causes)
      • Ill health depends on
        • impairment
        • disability
        • handicap
      • Application of classification
        • disease
          • eg cochlear degeneration
        • Impairment
          • bilateral hearing loss
        • disability
          • poor discrimination of speech especially in noise
        • handicap
          • cannot socialise in a noisy environment
    • Who international classification system
      • classifications of disease and consequences
      • common framework for disease between countries
      • standardisation is important for
        • Research
        • clinical assessment
        • education
        • data collection eg population health
      • evaluation
        • ill health is more complex
        • no consideration for interaction between disabilities, impairment and handicap
        • determinisim
          • impairments do not necessarily lead to disabilities
        • reductionist
          • other factors such as social and physical environment
    • Modern classification
      • Who 2001
        • focus on impact rather than cause
        • environment
          • impact of health arises from interaction of individual and environment
          • (Social and Physical)
        • universality
          • views health as a scale that everyone is on
            • disability is not a minority group
      • New model of disability
        • combines both medical and social model
          • both are an over simplification
        • impact of health arises from interaction of individual and environment
      • Who International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health

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