# crude oil and fuels

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• Crude oil and fuels
• Fuels from crude oil
• Crude oil is a mixture of many different compunds
• Distillation can be used to sepearte mixtures of liquids
• Most of the compounds in crude oil are hydrocarbons- they contain only hydrogen and crabon.
• Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons. They contain as many hydrogen atoms as possible in their molecules
• Fractonal distillation
• Crude oil is seperated into fractions using fractional distillation
• The properties of each fraction depend on the size of the hydrocarbon molecules
• Fractions with lower boiling points are less viscous and burn more easily
• Burning fuels
• Burnimg hydrocarbons in plenty of air produces carbon dioxide and water
• Burning hydrocarbons in limited supply of air may produce sulfur dioxide
• Any sulfur compounds in the fuel burn to produce sulfur dioxide
• Oxides of nitrogen can be formed when fuels burn under extreme conditions
• Cleaner fuels
• Many scientists believe that carbon dioxide from burning fuels causes global warming
• Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides cause acid rain
• Particualtes cause global dimming
• Pollutants can be removed from waste gases after the fuel is burned
• Sulfur can be removed from fuels before they are burned so less sulfur dioxide is given off
• Alternative fuels
• Biodiesel can be made from vegetable oils
• Biofuels are a renewable source of energy that could be used instead of fossil fules
• Ethanol made form sugar is a biofuel
• Hydrogen is a potential fuel for the future
• Alternative fuels
• Biodiesel can be made from vegetable oils
• Biofuels are a renewable source of energy that could be used instead of fossil fules