CJA 1988, s.39

Spider diagram showing two offences studied in the Criminal Justice Act 1988 and the actus reus and mens rea of both

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  • Criminal Justice Act 1988, s.39
    • Battery
      • Intention or (Cunningham) recklessness
  • Battery
    • Intention or (Cunningham) recklessness
  • No need for "direct" force
    • Martin [1883],   R v K [1990], Hayward [2000]
    • Actual infliction of unlawful personal harm on the V
      • There is an implied consent to day-to-day touching
      • Can be committed by ommission
        • DPP v Santana-Bermudez [2004]
  • Force must be hostile
    • Actual infliction of unlawful personal harm on the V
      • There is an implied consent to day-to-day touching
      • Can be committed by ommission
        • DPP v Santana-Bermudez [2004]
  • ALL unlawful force is  hostile
    • Force must be hostile
    • R v Brown [1993]

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