crime

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Rachael
  • Created on: 28-11-12 17:04
View mindmap
  • Crime and ethnicity
    • offical stats
      • show that Black and Asian people are more likely to be involved in criminal activity.
      • Black people are 7 times more likely to be stopped and searched than white people and three and a half times more likely to be jailed.
    • Victim surveys
      • are useful in analysing this trend through asking victims the ethnicity of the perpetrator of crime.
      • They show a trend of crime being intra-ethnic, that is it takes place between rather than between races. The British crime Survey found that in 90% of crimes where the victim was white as least one of the offenders was white too
      • Bowling claimed that white victims may ‘over identify’ blacks saying the offender was black even if they’re not sure. They don’t examine crimes by businesses and organisations
    • Self-report studies
      • ask individuals to disclose their own dishonest and violent behaviour
      • Graham and Bowling found that rates of crime were similar amongst blacks and whites but Indian, Pakistanis and Bangladeshis has much lower rates
      • Sharp and Budd note that whites and those of mixed ethnic origins were more likely to say they had committed an offence followed by blacks and Asians. This challenged the stereotype of black people being more likely to offend than whites, but support the view of Asians being less likely to offend
    • policing
      • Phillips and Bowling  note since the 1970s there have been many allegations of oppressive policing of minority ethnic communities
        • e.g ‘mass stop and search operations, paramilitary tactics, excessive surveillance, armed raids, police violence and deaths in custody and a failure to respond effectively to racist attacks.’
    • Stop and search
      • In addition under the Terrorism Act 2000 police can stop and search a vehicle whether or not they have reasonable suspicion. Statistics show that in 2007 Asians were three times more likely to be stopped and searched than other people under this act
    • patterns
      • Stop and search
        • In addition under the Terrorism Act 2000 police can stop and search a vehicle whether or not they have reasonable suspicion. Statistics show that in 2007 Asians were three times more likely to be stopped and searched than other people under this act
      • Ethnic differences in offending: disproportionality in stop and searches simply reflects ethnic differences in levels of offending
      • Sentencing- In 2006/7 custodial sentences were given to a greater proportion of black offenders than white or Asian offenders, whereas whites and Asians were more likely than blacks to receive community sentences. Roger Hood found that even when factors such as previous convictions and the seriousness of offences were taken into account black men were 5% more likely to receive a custodial sentence and were given sentences 3 months longer than white men
    • pre senstence report
      • The reports help decide the appropriate sentence.
      • Hudson and Bramhall argue that the reports allow for discrimination. They found that reports on Asians showed them to be less remorseful than whites. This bias is known as ‘demonising’ Muslims due to 9/11
    • prison
      • In 2007 just over a quarter of the male prison population were from ethnic minority groups. Black males were five times more likely to be in prison than whites and receive longer sentences. Amongst ethnic minorities they are more likely to be kept on remand and not granted bail before they wait for trial.
  • policing
    • Phillips and Bowling  note since the 1970s there have been many allegations of oppressive policing of minority ethnic communities
      • e.g ‘mass stop and search operations, paramilitary tactics, excessive surveillance, armed raids, police violence and deaths in custody and a failure to respond effectively to racist attacks.’
  • patterns
    • Ethnic differences in offending: disproportionality in stop and searches simply reflects ethnic differences in levels of offending
    • Sentencing- In 2006/7 custodial sentences were given to a greater proportion of black offenders than white or Asian offenders, whereas whites and Asians were more likely than blacks to receive community sentences. Roger Hood found that even when factors such as previous convictions and the seriousness of offences were taken into account black men were 5% more likely to receive a custodial sentence and were given sentences 3 months longer than white men

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Sociology resources:

See all Sociology resources »See all Crime and deviance resources »