Crime and Punishment - 18th and 19th century England

  • Created by: Cannp
  • Created on: 29-05-19 10:57
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  • Crimes
    • 18th and 19th century britain
      • Law Enforcement
        • The Bow Street Runners
          • Established in London in 1749 by Henry Fielding to try to tackle the huge crime wave of 17th-century London
        • Metropolitan Police Act (1829)
          • Began Britain's first professional police force
        • The detective department set up at the Metropolitan police headquarters (1842)
        • 1856 Police Act
          • forced all towns and countries to set up a professional police force
      • Robert Peel
        • Set up the prison reforms
        • Set up the Metropolitan police
    • Crimes against authority
      • Secret Oaths
        • The tolpuddle martyrs
          • they had set up a trade union and were later arrested for taking a secret oath
      • Witchcraft
        • After the civil war the number of witchcraft declined. All laws concerning witchcraft were appealed by the Witchcraft Act of 1736
    • Crimes against the person and property
      • Poaching
        • increased in the 18th century with poaching gangs that worked on a large scale,
          • led to the 1723 Waltham Black Act  which made poaching a crime
      • Smuggling
        • Highway robbery
          • Highway robbery increased in the 18th century because of
            • improved roads led to more people travelling
            • Increased trade between towns meant more godds and money were transported by road
            • many roads were isolated making it easy to get away with highway robbery
        • smuggling increased from 1740-1850 because the tax on imported goods was high
        • Smugglers made large profits by bringing these goods into the country without paying tax and selling them on
  • Prisons and prison reformers
    • Changing views on punishments
      • Transportation to Australia
        • The increase in crime rate increased transportation to Australia
          • Most stayed in Australia once their sentence ended as they couldn't afford the fare home
    • many thought prison conditions shhould be poor with hard labour, but several reformers believed prisons should be improved to increase the likelihood of rehabilitation
      • Jon Howard
        • his work led to 17774 Goal Act which suggested how health and sanitation could be improved
      • Elizabeth Fry
        • she set up education classes to reform female prisons


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