Cognitive Explanations Of Gender Development - Gender Schema Theory

  • Created by: Camay
  • Created on: 31-03-19 14:52
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  • Gender Schema Theory - Martin and Halverson
    • Gender schemas
      • Packages of information that we gain from the world around us about what behaviour is appropriate for our gender
      • Ingroup and Outgroup schemas
        • Ingroup
          • The group in which a person identifies, e.g. girls with other girls. This gives them a positive view of their ingroup and a negative view of the outgroup
        • Outgroup
          • The group in which a person doesn't identify with, e.g. boys with girls
    • Resilience of gender beliefs
      • Children hold a fixed attitude of gender appropriate behaviour and ignore behaviour that is not consistent with that
        • AO3 - Research Support by Martin and Halverson
          • Children under 6 asked to recall pictures of gender consistent (male firefighters, female nurses)  and inconsistent behaviours  (female body builders, male nurses)
            • Greater recall to consistent behaviours, suggests children payed better attention to behaviour consistent with their gender schemas
        • AO3 - Research Support by Bradbard et al.
          • Children aged 4-9 shown gender neutral items (pizza cutter, fire alarm) and told they were boy or girl items
            • Boys paid better attention to 'girl' items and boys paid better attention to 'boy' items. Paid better attention to their ingroup
    • They suggested that children acquire gender relevant information before the gender constancy stage
      • AO3 - Contradictory evidence by Zosuls et al.
        • Recorded samples on children playing and found that their language showed they started identifying themselves as a boy/girl by the age of 19 months
          • Much earlier than Martin and Halverson suggested


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