Cognitive approach - Gender

  • Created by: Georgia
  • Created on: 04-03-19 09:10
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  • Cognitive approach to gender
    • Kohlberg's theory  (Child's understanding of gender develops with age and intellect)
    • 1. Gender identity   Know own gender; recognise others' genders; don't know of development (boys to men)
      • 2. Gender stability Recognise gender is stable; fooled by changes in physical appearance
        • 3. Gender constancy Gender is permanent no matter what; knows is stable despite a change in appearance
    • Supporting research Munroe (1984) Tested children in variety of countries (Kenya/Nepal) Found that all children went through Kohlberg stages Suggests theory is universal
      • Limitations Individual differences; Uses children (limited communication; may have answered incorrectly if not understood questions)
    • Gender schema theory (understanding develops with age; self-learning)
      • Gender schema Cognitive framework about gender and gender-appropriate behaviour
      • Information found in environment and role models; used to develop schema
    • Strengths Explains fixed knowledge of gender
      • Research Martin and Halverson (1983) Schema consistent or inconsistent pictures; forgot or changed to fit schema
    • Limitations Children in research; Doesn't explain why individuals adopt gender-inappropriate behaviour
  • Learn complexity of own gender
    • Behaviour learnt from observation and reinforcement
    • Gender constancy Understanding of own gender and associated behaviour
      • Develop schema of opposite sex; same standard as own sex


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