Approaches- Cognitive Approach

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  • Cognitive approach
    • Internal mental processes
      • memory
      • perception
      • attention
      • everything is controlled by mental processes
      • internal mental processes can be studied by inference
    • schema
      • 'packages' if information/ mental framework
      • represent objects or events
      • born with some but are mostly developed with experiences
      • create mental shortcuts that can lead to perception errors
    • computer model
      • input is senses
      • Processing happens in the brain
      • output is behaviour/feelings
    • cognitive neuroscience
      • study of biological structures that underpin cognitive processes
      • uses PET scans and fMRI scans to learn about how the brain works
      • interested in neural processes, memory, awareness, perception, social cognition
    • strengths
      • soft determinism
        • allows for our own thought processes
        • accounts for free will and why people respond differently
      • real life application
        • used in CBT
          • improves peoples quality of life
      • scientific credibility
        • cognitive neuroscience uses controlled observable methods.
          • high internal validity, repeatability
    • limitations
      • reductionist
        • we don't actually work like computers
        • doesn't account for feelings/emotion or circumstance
        • incomplete explanation
      • lab experiments
        • all experiments done in lab conditions
          • unnatural environment
            • demand characteristic can alter responses- low ecological validity


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