Clinical

Brief mind map of AQA A2 Clinical psychology (doesn't include evaluations)

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  • Clinical Psychology
    • Classification and Diagnosis
      • DSM IV TR
        • Multi axial
          • 1. clinical syndromes
          • 2. Developmental/ Personality disorders
          • 3. Physical conditions
          • 4. Severity of psychosocial stressors
          • 5. Global assessment of functioning (GAF)
        • American
        • Most up to date issue = 2000
      • ICD 10
        • British
    • Schizophrenia
      • Explanations
        • Biological
          • Genetics
          • Overproduction of biochemicals (dopamine)
        • Psychological
          • Psychoanalytical
            • Regression to a state of narcissism in early oral stage where there is no developed ego to test reality.
            • Schizophrenogenic mother
            • Disintegration of the ego
          • Cognitive
            • Overload of sensory information
            • Dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs
          • Social
            • Environmental triggers
      • Types
        • Type 1 - Positive
          • Passivity experiences and thought disturbances
            • Hallucinations: Auditory, Somatosensory, Depersonalisation
              • Primary delusions: Grandeur, Persecution, Reference, Nihlism
        • Type 2 - Negative
          • Thought process disorder
            • Disturbance of affect
              • Psychomotor distubances
                • Lack of volition
      • Treatment
        • Drug Therapies
          • Chlorpromazine
            • 1st generation (typical)
            • Antagonist (blocks dopamine receptors)
              • Clozapine
                • Antipsychotics
                  • Chlorpromazine
                    • 1st generation (typical)
                    • Antagonist (blocks dopamine receptors)
                      • Clozapine
                        • Antipsychotics
                          • 2nd generation (atypical)
                          • Used when other treatments are ineffective as rare and serious side effects can occur
                          • Improves positive and negative symptoms
                          • Side effects include: drowsiness, neutropenia, seizures, variable levels of consciousness, anaemia, confusion, involuntary movements
                      • Improves severe agitation, aggression and excitement, disturbed thoughts, delusions and hallucinations. (positive symptoms)
                      • Side effects include: Drowsiness, dizziness, constipation, blurred vision, dry mouth, extrapyramidal effects
                  • 2nd generation (atypical)
                  • Used when other treatments are ineffective as rare and serious side effects can occur
                  • Improves positive and negative symptoms
                  • Side effects include: drowsiness, neutropenia, seizures, variable levels of consciousness, anaemia, confusion, involuntary movements
              • Improves severe agitation, aggression and excitement, disturbed thoughts, delusions and hallucinations. (positive symptoms)
              • Side effects include: Drowsiness, dizziness, constipation, blurred vision, dry mouth, extrapyramidal effects
          • Psychoanalysis
            • Freudian slips, Free association, Dream analysis, Transference analysis, Resistance analysis
            • Gives patients insight into links between early life and symptoms
            • Model substitute relationships
      • Abnormality
        • Statisical norm
        • Deviation from cultural norms
          • situational norm
          • developmental norm
        • Abnormality as dysfunction and distress
      • Studies
        • Rosenhan (1973)
          • Distinguishing real schizophrenic patients from pseudopatients, who faked a single symptom - in terms of a psychiatrics diagnosis
          • 2 procedures
        • Lewine et al (1990)
          • To compare male and female brains with and without schizophrenia to see whether schizophrenia may be explained by sex differences in the brain.
          • Experimental and control groups (independant groups design)
            • Antipsychotic drugs
            • MRI scanning (corpus callosum)
        • Brown et al (1986)
          • To test whether self-esteem and social support affected the likelihood of suffering depression in a year following a stressful life event
          • Prospective design
          • Interviews
      • Bipolar Disorder
        • Mania (feeling very high and overactive)
          • Feeling euphoric, restlessness, extreme irritability, talking very fast, racing thoughts, lack of concentration, sleeping very little, a feeling a sense of importance, poor judgement, excessive and inappropriate spending, increased sexual drive, risky behaviour, misusing drugs/alcohol, aggressive behaviour.
        • Depression (Feeling very low and lethargic)
          • A sense of hopelessness, feeling empty emotionally, feeling guilty and worthless, chronic fatigue, difficulty sleeping or sleeping too much, weight loss/gain, changes in appetite, loss of interest in daily life, lack of concentration, being forgetful, suicidal feelings
        • Diagnosis (DSM IV)
          • Manic episode must involve a distinct period of abnormally and persistantly elevated, expansive or irritable mood, lasting at least a week plus 3 additional symptoms.
          • Axis 3 - checks for an overactive thyroid glad (hyperthyroidism)
        • Explanations
          • Biological
            • Chemiscal imbalance (serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine)
            • Genetics
          • Social
            • Environmental triggers (unbearable stress)
          • Psychodynamic
            • Repression
            • Lack of energy/build up of energy
        • Treatment
          • Drug therapies
            • Lithium carbonate
              • Mood stabiliser
              • Affects levels and activity of certain chemicals
              • Regular blood tests to monitor level of lithium
              • Takes a few weeks to work (optimum)
              • Many side effects
          • CBT
            • Ont to one interaction with therapist/group sessions
            • Handling thoughts, perceptions and behaviour
            • Healthy ways to deal with problems
            • Short-term

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