Circulatory and Respiratory Systems

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  • Circulatory and Respiratory Systems
    • functions of the blood
      • transport O2 and nutrients to cells
      • transport CO2 and waste away from cell
      • transport hormones (chemical messengers) to cells
      • maintain pH of body fluids
      • distribute heat and help maintain temperature
      • protect against disease causing micro-organisms
    • components of blood
      • Erythrocytes
        • transport O2 around body
          • lifespan = 120 days
      • Leucocytes
        • help with immunity of body
          • lifespan = dependant on infection anywhere from minutes to years
      • Thrombocytes
        • dissolve substances so they can be transported in the blood. Involved in blood clotting
          • lifespan = 7 days
      • Plasma
        • to transport dissolved substances (ions, glucose and gases)
          • lifespan = none
    • O2 and CO2 transport in the blood
      • O2 goes from alveolus, to the blood vesicle to the blood cell and diffuses into the cell.
        • most of the time, O2 binds to Haemoglobin (HBO2) and beomes oxyhaemoglobin
          • cell then moves into capillary after being transported to where it needs to go in the body
            • O2 then 'falls off' haemoglobin and is transported into the tissue where it is needed.
        • another way (less common) is that O2 dissolves into the plasma and gets transported this way.
      • for CO2, after the O2 'falls off' the haemoglobin, it starts to come into the red blood cell from the tissue.
        • when this happens, the CO2 then binds to haemoglobin and is transported back to the lungs
          • once there, there is more O2 so it 'kicks' the CO2 off the haemoglobin and binds with the haemoglobin. The Co2 is left to be expelled from the lungs and the process started again
    • word equations for the formation and dissociation of  oxyhaemoglobin and carbonic acid
      • Haemoglobin+ Oxygen = oxyhaemoglobin
        • This is the equation for when O2 binds with haemoglobin to form oxyhaemoglobin
      • when the CO2 combines with haemoglobin, the equation looks like this
        • H2O + CO2---    H2CO3
          • carbonic acid then dissociates to form hydrogen ions and hydrocarbonae ions. that equation looks like this
            • H2CO3---    H+  +  HCO3-
              • the chloride shift is the maintaining the balance of negative and positive ions.
                • the dissociation of carbonic acid increases blood acidity and hydrogen ions react with oxyhaemoglobin to release boundO2.
                  • Hb.4O2 + H+ ---     HHb+ + 4O2
    • Types of blood vessels
      • arteries
        • carry blood away from the heart
      • Capillaries
        • enable exchange of water and chemicals between blood and tissues
      • veins
        • carry blood from the capillaries back to the heart
    • pathway of blood through heart
      • Blood enters the heart through two large veins, the inferior and superior vena cava
        • here it emptys oxygen-poor blood from the body into the right atrium of the heart
          • From right atrium, it goes through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle. 
            • From the pulmonary trunk it moves into the right and left pulmonary arteries to the lungs. 
              • from the lungs, oxygenated blood is returned to the heart through the pulmonary veins. 
                • From the pulmonary veins, blood flows into the left atrium. 
                  • From the left atrium, blood flows through the bicuspid (mitral) valve into the left ventricle. 
                    • From the left ventricle, it goes through the aortic semilunar valves into the ascending aorta. 
                      • Blood is distributed to the rest of the body (systemic circulation) from the aorta. 


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