Chemistry Core

  • Created by: Geminem
  • Created on: 16-09-14 18:39
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    • Chemistry Core
      • Cracking and Polymerisation
        • Cracking is when a long chain alkane molecule is taken and a small bit is broken off to be used as Petrol or other use
          • Cracking produces a short chain Alkene with a C=C double bond called a Monomer
            • Cracking takes place in a very hot furnace with an Alluminium Oxide catalyst
        • Limestone
          • Limestone is made up of calcium carbonate
            • Thermal decomposition is when calcium carbonate is heated
              • Calcium oxide and carbon doixide are produced
            • When reacted with Hydrogen calcium carbonate becomes calcium hydroxide (limewater) which can test for carbon dioxide
        • Polymerisation is when many monomers join togetherto make long chains
          • This process opens up the C=C double bonds
          • The long cahins fit well on top of one another creating a strong material
            • This is how plastics are made. The heat and pessure of the reaction determine the qualities of the polymers. A high temperature and pressure produces a thin plastic
      • Metals and Extraction
        • Metal ores are usually found as an oxideand they are  extracted through 4 main methods
          • Carbon Reduction is how to extract metals less reactive than carbon. The metal ore is placed in a furnace and heated with a catalyst. This leave the ore and carbon dioxide
            • Metals extracted this was are pure which makes them soft and easy to mold however to make them stronger they are made into alloys
              • An alloy is made by adding Carbon to a metal to stop the molecules sliding over each other
          • Electrolysis is when metals are extracted using electricity. An electrolyte(liquid) is used to carry ions which carry a charge
          • Phytomining is when plants are grown in copper rich soils. They are then harvested, dried and the copper is extracted from them
          • Bioleaching is when bacteria breaks the bond in copper sulfide
      • Plant Oils
        • Plant oils are made from saturated and unsaturated fats
          • Unsaturated fats have C=C double bonds. Mono unsaturated fats have one bond whereas polyunsaturated fats have more
        • Hydrogenation is when unsaturated fats are hardened. This occurs when the fat is reacted with hydrogen at 60 degrees with a nickel catalyst
        • Oil and water don't mix so they are put together in an emulsion. This is when one of the liquid's droplets are emerged in the other liquid
          • An emulsifier is needed for this . An emulsifier has two parts: A hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail
            • The hydrophilic head immerses itself in the water
            • The hydrophobic tail immerses itself in the oil droplets. as many molecules do this the oil droplets are prevented from joining and seperating from the water
      • Earth and Atmosphere
        • Phase 1 - when the earth began it's surface was mostly molten. There were many volcanoes an which gave out carbon dioxide.  Any atmosphere was quickly burned away. Eventually a thin crust was formed
          • Phase 2 - Green plants evolved and thrived off the carbon dioxide in the air. The oceans had formed from water vapour and now absorbed a lot of carbon dioxide. Plants were fossilised under sedimentary rocks and eventually became fossil fuels
            • Phase 3- An atmosphere formed and due to plants photosynthesising oxygen was produced which eventually formed an ozone layer. This allowed more complex organisms to evolve


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