chemistry unit 1

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  • chemistry notes
    • testing for cations
      • lithium
        • crimson
          • this does not work for compounds
            • orange
            • lilac
            • brick red
            • green / blue
      • sodium
        • orange
      • potassium
        • lilac
      • calcium
        • brick red
      • copper
        • green / blue
    • testing for anions
      • calcium +2
        • cloudy
      • copper +2
        • blue
          • sodium hydroxide is used
            • cloudy
            • cloudy then dissolves
            • cloudy
            • green/ blue
            • brown
      • iron +2
        • green/ blue
      • magnesium
        • cloudy
      • iron +3
        • brown
      • aluminium
        • cloudy then dissolves
    • testing for carbonates
      • add hydrochloric acid into test tube for form a gass
        • it is a carbonate if lime water turns cloudy
    • testing for sulfates
      • hydrochloric acid and barium chloride
        • if it is a sulphate then it will form a white precipitate
        • hydrochloric acid first so that the chloride is taken out of solution
    • testing for halides
      • add dilute nitric acid and then silver nitrate
        • chlorine  is white
        • bromide is cream
        • iodide is yellow
    • tests for different gasses
      • chlorine
        • use litmus paper
          • it should turn from red to white
      • oxygen
        • relighting a glowing splint
      • carbon dioxide
        • bubbling lime water
          • lime water should turn cloudy
      • hydrogen
        • squeaky pop test with a lit splint
    • pure and impure
      • pure is made out of one type of atom
      • impure is made up of more than one type of atom
      • formulation is another word for a mixture made for a specific job
      • separation methods
        • chromatography - mass
        • distillation  - boiling point
        • filtration - states of matter
    • chromatography
      • mobile phase
        • the solvent moving up the paper
      • stationary phase
        • the chromatography paper
      • FR value
        • distance moved by substance   -------------distance travelled by solvent

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very very helpful for revision

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