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  • Created on: 30-10-15 15:51
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  • Chemistry 1.3
    • Extracting Metals
      • Some un-reactive metals can be found as pure metal such as gold etc.
      • Others are mined as ore and then extracted and purified.
        • Ores are rocks containing the metal within compunds.
        • The metal can be stripped from its compound via many methods.
          • Carbon reduction
            • Metals that are less reactive than carbon can be reduced by it.
              • For example- iron oxide + carbon -> iron + carbon dioxide
                • This reaction (for iron) takes place in a blast furnace and produces very brittle iron due to an abundance of impurities introduced in the blast furnace. This is called ' cast iron'.
          • Electroylsis
            • Others can be extracted by electrolysis.
              • However electrolysis can be expensive and require a lot of power.
              • Such as aluminium and titanium
      • Other ways include phytomining and bioleaching
        • Pyhtomining
          • Plants are grown to absorb the metal compounds
            • Then the plants are burnt to produce ash containing these compounds.
        • Bioleaching
          • Uses bacteria to extract the metal into a solution
    • Alloys
      • A metal alloy is a mixture of 2 metals
      • Extra, smaller metal atoms fill the gaps between the larger metal particles to make the alloy stronger.
      • Examples
        • Iron
          • Usually converted into steel by adding carbon.
          • Types of steel
            • Low carbon- Fairly soft and can be shaped easily.
            • High carbon- Extremely hard. Used in building of rigid structures
            • Stainless- Resistant to corrosion. Used for cutlery as it will not rust and allow it to last a long time.
        • Also metals such as copper, gold, and aluminium are used to create alloys.
      • Usually the pure metals in an alloy are too soft and fragile to be used.
      • Alloys are prefered as building materials due to their increased strebgth
    • Properties of metals
      • The central block of elements are the 'Transition Metals'
        • These metals are good conductors of heat and electricity
          • They can be shaped by being bent or hammered.
            • Because of this they are useful as building materials.
      • Specific metals
        • Copper
          • Useful for wiring and plumbing due to its strength, malleability and electrical conductivity.
        • Aluminium and titanium
          • Useful for building lightweight structures such as aircraft and cans.
            • This is because of a low density and resistance to corrosion


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