Charles I Reign 1625 - 1629

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  • Charles I Reign 1625 - 1629
    • Youngest surviving child of James I
    • Poor communication skills due to his stammer
    • One of the greatest art collectors of the century
    • Inherited several problems
      • Failures in foreign policy
      • Buckingham
      • Religion
      • Finance
    • Began a period of personal rule in 1629 (Rule without parliament)
    • First Parliament June - August 1625
      • Charles failed to explain foreign policy so the parliament used money against him
      • Voted Charles tonnage and poundage for only 1 year instead of for life
      • 2 subsidies in June 1625 - less than a quarter of what Charles actually needed
      • Inquirey into 1624 subsidy
      • Attacked the issue of the growth of Arminianism
      • Buckingham was taking advice from Laud - Bishop of Bath and Wells
      • Parliament attempted to withhold supplies until Buckingham was removed
        • Charles could dissolve parliament but he was still remained financially weak
    • Second Parliament February - May 1626
      • Determined to remove the Duke of Buckingham
        • Granted subsidies in theory but wouldn't pass them until he was removed
      • Charles had to dissolve parliament  to save Buckingham from being impeached and to avoid a nasty debate on the discussion of parliamentary privileges
    • Third Parliament March 1628 - March 1629
      • Started in tense circumstances as Laud was to preach the opening sermon
        • Laud represented unpopular religious ideas and everything about the corrupt patronage system controlled by Buckingham
      • Released those who had refused to pay the Forced Loan
        • Did little to ease hostility
      • Committee of Grievances formed - consider Charles and his goods
        • Also covered: Bulleting of soliders in private houses and punishment by martial law
        • Outcome: Petition of Right 1628
          • 5 Knights Case
            • "These rights, these privileges, which made our fathers freemen, are in question."
          • Also covered: Bulleting of soliders in private houses and punishment by martial law
          • No freeman to be detained/kept in prison/restrained by the King or privy council unless a cause is given
          • The commissions for proceeding by martial law may be revoked and annulled
          • No tax, loan, benevolence or other charge to be commanded by the King unless consent is given by an Act of Parliament
        • 5 Knights Case
          • "These rights, these privileges, which made our fathers freemen, are in question."
      • Buckingham assassinated in between first and second session
      • Second session even more hostile - Charles accused of breaching the Petition of Right
        • Charles dissolved Parliament 10th March after 9 MPs were arrested
    • In between Second and Third Parliaments 1627
      • War breaks out with France 1627
        • Known as Buckingham's war - an attempt to redeem himself
          • Ended up getting involved in 2 wars
        • Drain on finance
        • Buckingham's credibility reduced
        • Charles catholic wife Henrietta even more unpopular
      • Charles had to collect tonnage and poundage illegally
        • Called for a Forced Loan in 1626
          • Intended to bring in 5 subsidies - expected his loyal subjects and clergymen to contribute
          • Forced Loan collected in 1627 but 76 people refused to pay
            • They were arrested or conscripted into the army
          • Archbishop Abbott suspended for not supporting the Forced Loan

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