A2 Biology Chapter 6

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Chloesn
  • Created on: 16-09-14 20:23
View mindmap
  • Chapter 6 Respiration
    • ATP
      • 3 Phosphate
      • Ribose sugar unit
      • Adenine
      • Remove phosphate in one mole
        • 30.5kJ
          • Hydrolysis catalysed by ATPases
      • ADP
      • AMP
    • Glycolysis
      • Metabolic pathway
      • Cytoplasm
      • Adding phosphate groups
        • Hexose biphosphate
          • Phosphorylation
          • Split
            • Two triose phosphate
              • Oxidised to pyruvate
                • Catalysed by dehydrogenase
                  • Only work if NAD is present
                    • Coenzyme
                    • Reduced
                    • Which is then reduced NADH/H+
                • Two ADP converted to ATP per triose
                • What happends depends on oxygen
                  • Aerobic respiration
                    • Pyruvate moved into mitochondria
                      • Active transport
                      • Decarboxylated
                        • CO2 waste diffuses out
                        • Two carbon compound
                        • Hydrogen also removed
                          • Makes NADH/H+
                      • Remainder combines with coenzyme A
                        • Acetyl CoA
                          • Combines with
                            • Coenzyme A released
                              • Remainder combines with coenzyme A
                                • Acetyl CoA
                                  • Combines with
                                    • Coenzyme A released
                                      • Oxcaloacetate 4C
                              • Oxcaloacetate 4C
      • The link reaction
        • The matrix
        • Pyruvate moved into mitochondria
          • Active transport
          • Decarboxylated
            • CO2 waste diffuses out
            • Two carbon compound
            • Hydrogen also removed
              • Makes NADH/H+
      • The Krebs cycle
        • The matrix
        • Each step catalysed by specific enzyme
          • Oxidoreductases/dehydrogenases
          • Decarboxylases
        • One turn ATP produced
          • Substrate-level phosphorylation
          • NADH/H+ and FADH2 used significantly
            • Releases hydrogen
              • Splits H+ + e-
      • Oxidative phosphorylation
        • Oxygen to produce ATP from ADP + Pi
      • Anaerobic respiration
        • Glycolysis can still take place
        • Pyruvate + NADH/H+ = lactate + NAD
        • Small amounts of ATP 2  per glucose
        • Lactate build up
          • Skeletal muscle
            • Top up ATP
              • Anaerobic respiration
                • Glycolysis can still take place
                • Pyruvate + NADH/H+ = lactate + NAD
                • Small amounts of ATP 2  per glucose
                • Lactate build up
                  • Skeletal muscle
                    • Top up ATP
                    • Diffuses into plasma
                      • Hapatocytes absorb
                        • Converted to pyruvate
                          • Oxidised using link reaction and krebs when O2 plenty
                            • Untitled
                        • Some to glycogen
                        • Oxygen debt
            • Diffuses into plasma
              • Hapatocytes absorb
                • Converted to pyruvate
                  • Oxidised using link reaction and krebs when O2 plenty
                    • Untitled
                • Some to glycogen
                • Oxygen debt
        • Anaerobic respiration in yeast
          • Pyruvate decarboxylated to ethanal
            • Accepts H+ from NADH/H+
              • Reducing it to ethanol
        • Mitochondria
          • Envelope
            • Intermembrane space
            • Inner membrane
              • Cristae
            • Outer membrane
        • Electron transport chain
          • Inner membrane
            • Electron carriers
              • First one picks up e
                • Splits H+ + e-
                • Carrier now reduced
                  • NADH/H+ oxidised
                    • Reused as coenzyme
                      • The Krebs cycle
                        • Each step catalysed by specific enzyme
                          • Oxidoreductases/dehydrogenases
                          • Decarboxylases
                        • One turn ATP produced
                          • Substrate-level phosphorylation
                          • NADH/H+ and FADH2 used significantly
                            • Releases hydrogen
                  • Passes e to next in chain
                    • First now oxidised
                    • All along chain
                      • As e is moved energy released
                        • to make ATP
                        • At the end
                          • e- + H+ + O = H2O
                            • O final e- acceptor
            • Synthesis/chemiosmosis
              • Some energy used to pump H+ across
                • Electrochemical gradient
                • They diffuse through special channels
                  • Act as ATPases
                    • Energy gained form active transport
                      • Used to make ATP from ADP + pi
                      • Against concentration gradient
          • Evidence
            • pH gradient
            • Membranes can make ATP with no ETC
            • Chemicals preventing H+ transport also stop ATP production
            • No outer membrane
          • How much ATP?
            • 32
            • Need ADP + Pi
            • NADH/H+ produce 2and1/2
            • FADH2 produce 1and1/2
            • FAD
            • Reduced FAD
            • NADH/H+
            • NAD
          • NAD
          • NADH/H+

        Comments

        No comments have yet been made

        Similar Biology resources:

        See all Biology resources »See all Respiration resources »