Challenges at Home and Abroad, 1569-1588

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  • Created on: 20-04-18 14:27
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  • Challenges at Home and Abroad, 1569-1588
    • The Revolt of the Northern Earls, 1569-1570
      • Most Northern Earls were catholic
        • Hoped Mary would replace Elizabeth
      • Elizabeth has confiscated land from the Earl of Northumberlan
        • Shared between his main rival in the North and a Protestant in the South
        • Elizabeth claimed profits from copper mines on his estates
      • Elizabeth reduced Northern nobles' power and increased her power
      • They believed that some of the Privy Council had become too powerful
      • Duke of Norfolk planned to marry Mary
        • Recognise her as Elizabeth's heir
      • Plan was uncovered
        • Feared of execution for involvement
        • Rebelled and tried to overthrow
      • November 1569 - Earls captured Durham
        • Celebrated Catholic Mass
        • Made their way to Tutbury
      • Large royal army forced them to retreat
        • Westmorland fled abroad
        • Northumberland executed
      • Most serious rebellion
        • Showed danger of Mary
      • 1570 - Pope Pius V excommunicated Elizabeth
    • Catholic Plots at Home
      • Ridolfi Plot
        • Ridolfi was an Italian banker
        • 1571 - Developed a plot to overthrow Elizabeth
        • Assassinate Elizabeth, then marry Mary to Norfolk
        • Plot failed
          • Elizabeth's allies passed on the names of those involved
          • Intercepted letters
      • Throckmorton Plot, 1583
        • Assassinate Elizabeth and replace her with Mary
        • Invasion of French troops
          • Financed by Phillip II and the Pope
        • Francis Throckmorton was the leading figure
        • Walsingham placed Throckmorton under surveillance
        • Bond of Association drafted
          • Aimed to prevent these plots
          • Signed by English nobility and gentry
          • Execute anyone who attempted to overthrow the Queen
        • Rise in the threat of foreign invasion
        • Obedience to the Pope was more important than to the Queen for some
      • Babington Plot, 1586
        • Involved France and Spain
        • Assassinate Elizabeth planned
        • Anthony Babington relayed letters between Mary and her supporters
        • Walsingham intercepted letters and decoded the,
        • Conspirators were arrested, tried and executed for treason
        • Mary was put on trial too due to Walsingham's evidence
        • October 1568, Mary was found guilty and sentenced to death
          • Death warrant signed and execution on 8th February 1587
    • Relations with Spain
      • England and Spain were political and regilious rivals
      • Spain was a great imperial power
        • Ruled Spain, Netherlands, parts of Italy, had a large empire in North and South America, became king of Portugal
      • England hoped to create an empire that would rival Spain
      • English exports went through Dutch ports
      • Elizabeth seized gold off Spainish ships when they docked in England
        • Phillip responded by seizing English ships in Antwerp
        • Banned English trade with the Netherlands for a time
      • Elizabeth encouraged privateers to illegally tade with Spanish colonies
        • She could deny responsibility that way
        • Received a share of the profits
      • Treasure received from Drake in 1580 was worth more than her income that year
    • War with Spain, 1585-1588
      • 1581 - Protestant rebels declare independence from Spain
      • 1585 - Treaty of Nonsuch
        • Place Netherlands under her protection
      • Elizabeth wanted to protect Protestiantsm
      • Netherlands' ports were essential to English exports
      • Natherlands could be used as a base for English invasion
      • Stop Spain controlling almost the entire Channel and Atlantic coasts
      • Robert Dudley accepted position of Governor-General in Netherlands
        • Elizabeth forced him to resign
      • Dudley's campaigns were unsuccessful
        • Wasn't a talented general
        • His officers were divided over strategy
        • He had a small army
        • Poorly equpped
        • Sufficient funds not provided
    • Drake's Raid on Cadiz, 1587
      • Drake was sent to disrupt Spanish preparation for the Armada
      • Ships being built in Lisbon
        • No hope of a successful attack
      • Attacked Cadiz instead
        • Seize or destroy naval supplies
      • Destroyed around 30 ships
      • Sailed along coast of Spain and Portugal
        • Seizing ships and destroying supplies
      • Captured San Filipe
        • Cargo covered cost of expedition and improved England's defences
      • Delayed the Armada for more than a year
      • Spain's finances strained
    • The Spanish Armada, 1588
      • Armada was 130 ships, 8000 sailors, and 18000 soldiers
      • Duke of Medina Sidonia appointed to lead
        • Little military or naval experience
      • Plan to meet Parma's army at Dunkirk
      • Set out on May 1588
        • Delayed due to bad weather and English interception
      • Fleet spotted off Cornwall in July
        • English set sail from Plymouth
      • Armada sailed in cresent formation
      • English only carried out minor raids, without much damage
      • Parma unable to meet Spanish troops due to Dutch blockade
      • English sent 8 fireships
        • Caused distress to Spanish who broke formation
      • Spanish unable to return to defensive formation due to weather
        • Fleet forced by English to sail into North Sea
      • Medina Sidonia called off attack
        • Sailed around Scotland and Ireland
        • Encountered Atlantic storms
      • Many ships sank or were wrecked
        • Fewer than half the fleet and 10000 men returned to Spain
      • English Strengths
        • Ship building had improved
        • Stayed out of  Spanish's range and fired broadsides
      • Spanish weaknesses
        • Men lacked naval warfare experience
        • Ships were vulnerable while waiting for Parma due to not having control of a deep-water port
      • Luck
        • Death of Spain's admiral led to appointment of an inexperienced leader
        • Weather made it impossible for Spanish to return to the Channel
      • English victory removed threat of Spanish invasion

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