Cells and cell structure

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  • CELLS AND CELL STRUCTURE
    • Most human and animal cells have the following parts:
      • A nucleus, which controls the activities of the cell
        • Cytoplasm- in which most of the chemical reactions take place
          • A cell membrane- which controls the passage of substances into and out of the cell
            • Mitochondria- which is where most energy is released in respiration
              • Ribosomes- which is where protein synthesis occurs
    • Plant and algal cells also have a cell wall made of cellulose, which strengthens the cell.
      • Chloroplasts- which absorb light  energy to make food
        • A permanent vacuole filled with cell sap
    • A bacterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall; the genes are not in a distinct nucleus
    • Yeast is a single-celled organism. Yeast cells have a nucleus, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall
    • Cells may be specialised to carry out a particular function
  • Chloroplasts- which absorb light  energy to make food
    • A permanent vacuole filled with cell sap

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