Cells 2

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  • Cells
    • Nucleus
      • Structure
        • Contains chromatin
        • Surrounded by a nuclear envelope. This is made of 2 membranes with a fluid between them. Has nuclear pores - large enough  for relatively large molecules to pass through
        • There is a dense, spherical structure called the nucleolus inside the nucleus.
      • Function
        • Houses all the cell's genetic material
        • Has instructions for making proteins.
    • Endoplasmic Reticulm
      • Structure
        • consists of flattened, membrane-bound sacs called cisternae
        • Rough endoplamic reticulum is studded with ribosomes.
        • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum doesn't have ribosomes.
      • Function
        • Rough ER transports proteins, that were made on the attached ribosomes.
          • Some are secreted from the cell, some will be placed on the cell surface membrane.
        • Smooth ER is involved in making the lipids that the cell needs
    • Golgi appartus
      • Structure
        • A stack of membrane-bound, flattened sacs
      • Function
        • Receives proteins from the ER and modifies them
          • may add sugar to them
        • Then packages the modified proteins into vesicels that can be transported
          • Some may go to the surface of the cell so that they can be secreted
    • Mitochondria
      • Structure
        • 2 membranes separated by a fluid filled space
          • Inner membrane is highly folded to form cristae
          • The central part is called the matrix
      • Function
        • Make ATP during respiration
    • Chloroplasts
      • Structure
        • Only found in plant cells
        • 2 membranes separated by a fluid-filled space
          • Inner membrane is continuous, with an elaborate network flattened membrane sacs called thlakoids
            • Stack of thylakoids called granum
            • Chlorophyll  are present here
      • Function
        • Sit e of photosynthesis
    • Lysosomes
      • Structure
        • Spherical sacs surronded by a single membrane
      • Function
        • Powerful digestive enzyme
        • Their role is to break down materials
    • Ribosomes
      • Structure
        • Tiny organelles
        • Consist of 2 subunits
        • Some are free in the cytoplasm and some are bound to the ER
      • Function
        • Site of protein synthesis
    • Centrioles
      • Structure
        • Small tubes of protein fibres (microtubules)
        • Pair next  to the nucleus of animal cells
        • In the cells of  some protoctists
      • Function
        • Take part in cell division
        • Form the fibres, known as the spindle, move chromosomes during mitiosis


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