Cells, Tissues & Organs

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  • Created by: jwizz
  • Created on: 02-06-16 16:35
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  • Cells, Tissues & Organs
    • Animal and plant cells
      • light & electron microscopes
      • Animal cells
        • nucleus
          • controls activities of the cell
          • contains the genes on chorosomes
          • carries instruction for making new cells/organisms
        • Cytoplasm
          • liquid gel where chemical reactions for life take place
        • cell membrane
          • controls what goes in and out
        • mitochondria
          • where respirations occurs
        • Ribosomes
          • where proten synthesis takes place
      • plant cells
        • cell wall made of cellulose to support it
        • chloroplasts containing chlorophyll to photosynthesise
        • permanent valuole to keep it rigid
    • Bacteria and Yeast
      • you can see bacteria colony with your eye. cultured on an agar plate
      • Bacteria cell
        • flagella
        • plasmids and loose genetic material
        • cell wall and membrane
        • slime capsule
        • cytoplasm
        • yoghurt, cheese, sewage treatment, medicines
      • Yeast cell
        • nucleus, cell wall, cytoplasm, cell membrane
        • bigger than bacteria
        • reproduces by asexual budding
          • form a bud on the yeast then forms a separate organism
        • when anaerobic respiration breaks down sugar into ethanol and CO2
          • ethanol = alcohol.
          • fermentation
    • Specialised cells
      • specialised: adapted for a particular function
      • Fat cells
        • little cytoplasm, lots of fat
        • few mitochondria
        • can expand to 1000 times original size
      • Cone cells from human eye
        • visual pigment
        • lots of mitochondria to reform visual pigment
        • synapse to optic nerve
      • Root hair cells
        • large SA
          • permanent vacuole to speed up osmosis
      • Sperm cells
        • long tail to help it move
        • lot of mitochondria
        • acrosome with digestive enzymes
        • large nucleus
    • Diffusion
      • movement of particles from an area of high to low concentration along a concentration gradient
      • diffusion occurs down a concentration gradient
      • temperature affects diffusion
      • the greater the gradient the faster the diffusion
      • net movement = particles moving in - particales moving out
      • glucose to cells. amion acids from gut to cells
      • oxygen to red blood cells for respiration
      • increase surface area speeds up diffusion
    • Tissues and organs
      • tissue: a group of cells wiht a similar function working together
        • e.g. muscular tissue, Glandular tissue, Epidermal tissue, Xylem , Phoem, Mesophyll tissue
      • organ : a group of tissues working together
        • stomach
          • muscular, glandular, epithelial tissues
      • adaptations for exchange
        • increase surface area speeds up diffusion
        • good blood supply bring things in and ouyt mina strains a steep concentration gradient
          • the greater the gradient the faster the diffusion
    • Organ systems
      • digestive system
        • mouth, teeth, tongue
          • silivary glands
            • gullet
              • stomach
                • small intestine
                  • large intestine & appendix
                    • rectum and anus
        • liver
          • gall bladder
            • bile duct
              • pancreas
      • plant organs
        • leaves stems, roots
      • a group of organs working together to perform a function

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