Cell cycle and cell division

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  • Created by: emma
  • Created on: 17-04-14 14:03
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  • Cell cycle and cell division
    • Chromosome
      • Independent DNA molecule which has folded and condensed
        • During DNA replication 2 copies of the DNA molecule are made and attached at a centromere
          • 2 molecules called sister chromatids
    • Mitosis
      • Prophase- nuclear membrane breaks down, Centrioles move apart, chromosomes condense
        • Metaphase- centrioles complete spindle formation, chromosomes are aligned in the cell centre and attached to spindle fibres
          • Anaphase- spindle fibres contract and pull sister chromatids apart to opposite poles of cell
            • Telophase- Nuclear membrane starts to reform, chromosomes unwind
    • Cell cycle
      • After mitosis (Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase)
        • Nuclear division- nucleus divides in two by mitosis or meiosis
          • Cytokinesis- Cell divides in two
            • Interphase (G1, S and G2)
              • G1- cell increases in size and new biomass is made,
                • S- DNA replicates
                  • G2- cell gets ready for division, makes stores of ATP and new organelles
                    • After mitosis (Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase)
                      • Nuclear division- nucleus divides in two by mitosis or meiosis
                        • Cytokinesis- Cell divides in two
                          • Interphase (G1, S and G2)
                            • G1- cell increases in size and new biomass is made,
                              • S- DNA replicates
                                • G2- cell gets ready for division, makes stores of ATP and new organelles
      • Meiosis
        • First meiotic division the homologus chromosomes are seperated
          • Second meiotic division the sister chromatids are seperated
        • Variation introduced
          • Crossing over between sister chromatids during prophase one
            • Random assortment of homologus chromosomes during metaphase one
      • Chromosome number
        • Number of chromosomes possessed by organism
        • Haplod cells have one copy of each chromosome
        • Diploid cells have two copies of each chromosome
          • the copies of the same chromosome are called homologus chromosomes

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