Cell Biology

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  • Cell Biology
    • Organisms can be Prokaryotes or Eukaryotes
      • Eukaryotes cells are complex and include all animal and plant cells
      • Prokaryotic cells are smaller and simpler e.g bacterica
    • Plant cell
      • Cell wall - Structure
      • Permanent vacuole - Structure
      • Chloroplasts - These are where photosynthesis occurs, which makes green substance called chlorophyll, which absorbs the light needed for photosynthesis
      • Cell Membrane - Determines what goes in and out of the cell
      • Cytoplasm - Where most of the reactions take place
      • Ribosomes - Responsible for protein synthesis
      • Mitochondria - Where energy is produced
      • Nucleus - DNA is held here and the control centre of the cell
      • Their are many features in a plant cell that an animal cell doesn't share examples of these include the cell wall, vacuole and chloroplasts
    • Animal cell
      • Nucleus - DNA is held here and the control centre of the cell
      • Cytoplasm - Where most of the reactions take place
      • Cell membrane - Controls that goes in and out
      • Mitochondria - These are where most of the reactions for aerobic respiration takes place
      • Ribosomes - Responsible for protein synthesis
    • Bacteria Cells
      • Bacteria don't have chloroplasts or mitochondria
      • Bacterical cells don't have a true nucleus - instead they have a single circular strand of DNA that foats freely in the cytoplasm
      • They may also contain one or more small rings of DNA called plasmids
      • Cell membrane - Controls what goes in and out
      • Cytoplasm - Where most of the reactions take place
      • Chromosome/DNA - Not in a nucleus
      • Flagella - Used for locomotion
        • Locomotion - Movement or the ability to move from one place to another
      • Ribosomes - for protein synthesis
      • Cell wall
    • Microscopy
      • Microscopes let us see things that we can't see with the naked eye
      • Light microscopes - use light lenses to form an image of specimen and magnify it they let us see individual cells and large subcellular structures like nuclei
      • Electron Microscopes - Controlled by computers
      • Magnification Formula
    • DNA
      • DNA is a long strand of deoxyribonucleic acid this is made of loads of letter A's, T's, C's and G's and these twist round into a shape called a double helix
      • These double helix's twist into chromosomes which are located in the nucleus of cells
        • Mitosis
          • In mitosis we go from one parent cell too two identical daughter cells
    • Stem Cells
      • Stem cells have the ability to turn into any other type of cell
        • This many they can have many different uses some of these include: Treating Parkinson's disease (growing new brain cells), Bone and Spinal injuries (growing new bone cells) and Organ Failure (growing new organs)
    • Diffusion
      • Things moving from a high concentration down the diffusion gradient to a low concentration
      • An example of this is in the alveoli when carbon dioxide is diffused from the blood into the lungs so it can be breathed out and oxygen is diffused from the lungs into the blood
      • Osmosis
        • The movement of water through a partially permeable membrane
        • From an area of high concentration to low water concentration
        • Example - Root hair cells
    • Active transport
      • The movement across a membrane from a low concentration to a high concetration


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