B1 - Cell Biology

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  • Cell Biology
    • Cells
      • Prokaryotic
        • Smaller and simpler
        • E.g. bacteria
      • Eukaryotic
        • Complex
        • Include animal and plant cells
      • Animal
        • Cytoplasm
        • Nucleus
        • Cell membrain
        • Ribosomes
        • Mitochrondria
      • Plant
        • Rigid cell wall
        • Permanent vaculoe
        • Chloroplasts
    • Microscopy
      • Light microscope
        • Use light and lenses
        • Let us see individual calls and large subcellular structures
          • Nuclei
      • Electron microscope
        • Higher magnification
        • Use electrons
      • Magnification = image size / real size
    • Differentiation and Specialisation
      • Specialised call is a cell that does a specific function
      • Differentiation is the process by which a cell changes to become specialised
      • Sperm cells for reproduction
      • Nerve cells for rapid signalling
      • Root hair cells for absorbing water and minerals
      • Phloem and xylem for transporting substances
    • Chromosomes
      • 23 pairs in each human cell
      • Contain genetic information
      • Found in the nucleus
      • **=female XY=male
    • Diffusion
      • The spreading out of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
      • Bigger concentration gradient = faster diffusion rate
    • Osmosis
      • the movement of water molecules across a partially permeable membrane from a higher water concentration to a lower water concentration
    • Active Transport
      • molecules move across a cell membrane from a lower to a higher concentration
      • Molecules are moving against the concentration gradient and require energy

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