Cell Biology 1

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  • Cell Biology
    • Cell Structure
      • Unspecialised Plant Cells
        • All living things grow
          • Two sorts of meristems
            • Apical meristems
              • tips of roots and shoots
              • responsible for the change in the height of the plant
                • Each specialized cell has a particular shape
                  • enables it to form a specific function
                    • Vascular tissue in a plant is made up of specialized cells
                      • These tissues make up plant organs
                    • xylem  and phloem cells are both tubes are made up of cells  stacked on top of each other
                      • They form plants transport system
                        • carries water, mineral ions and sugars
              • causes the root to push forwards through soil
              • stem cells divide  - some daughter cells elongate and differentiate to form specialized cells to create tissue
            • lateral meristems
              • change the girth of the plant
            • New cells are produced by cell division
              • the slightly older cells behind the meristem expand
                • mainly lengthways by elongation
                  • lengthens root enabling it to push further into soil
        • Animals tend to keep growing until they reach adult size and then stop
        • But many plants keep growing for their whole life
        • Growth usually happens because of cell division     (mitosis)
          • In Plants, Cell Division only happens in tissues called meristems
            • meristems contain undifferentiated cells called stem cells
              • Because in meristem cells during cell division forms two undifferentiated cells that one stays undifferentiated and the other differentiates so meristems contain stem cells throughout the plants life
        • Newly formed unspecialised cells can differentiate
          • can change into specialised cell so they have a particular function
      • Cell Differentiation


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