Carboxylic acids

carboxylic acids

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  • Created by: Sherin
  • Created on: 12-11-12 22:16
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  • Carboxylic acids
    • Carboxylic acids and their derivatives all contain a carbonyl group
    • Many carboxylic acids react by addition elimination reactions. These depend upon:
      • The strength of the C-X bond,
      • Stability of the X
    • The -COOH  is known as carboxyl group and consists of a carbonyl and a  hydroxyl
    • Boiling point: as Chain length increases boiling point increases. This occurs as more london forces as more points of contact between adjacent chains.
    • Melting point: as chain length increases melting point decreases as less H-bonding due to the zig zag carbond chain.
    • Strong smelling
    • Can form hydrogen bonds with water as chain length increases the chain becomes more hydrophobic.
    • Preparation
      • Reaction of acyl chlorides with water
        • Add water
      • Aldehyde
        • Add potassium dichromate in acid, heat under reflux
      • Hydrolysis of an nitriles
        • Heat under reflux with dilute acid
      • Primary alcohol
        • Add potassium dichromate in acid, heat under reflux
      • Iodoform reactions with methyl ketones, secondary alcohols or ethanal.
        • Add iodine in NaOH to reactant a carboylate ion is formed with one less carbon. Then add an acid to form carboxylic acid.
      • Hydrolysis of an ester
        • Transesterification or by adding an acid or better yet a base. You will need to purify the salt during the latter process by adding an excess dilute acid.


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