• Created by: edolling
  • Created on: 06-05-19 19:57
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    • Carbon is a chemical element and it can exist in pure form form or as a combination - CO2. It forms building blocks for plants and animals, moved around the carbon cycle.
      • The carbon cycle  is a biogeochemical cycle - where carbon is stored and moved between spheres - through flows and fluxes. CLOSED SYSTEM
    • Carbon stores can add carbon to the source (atmosphere) and remove carbon - sinks. sources =sink then cc is in EQUILIBRIUM- creating + OR - FEEDBACK.
      • Stores: ATMOSPHERE - co2 and methane LITHOSPHERE - fossil fuels and lime stone . BIOSPHERE - living/dead organisms. HYDROSPHERE - dissolved CO2
        • There are terrestrial, oceanic and atmospheric stores
      • Flux - is the movement of  carbon between stores
        • E.G - respiration, photosynthesis, decomposition, busing of fossil fuels, eating of vegetation- methane released.
      • FAST CC - carbon from living things to a tmospher. SLOW CC- carbon between surface bed rock and ocean or atmospheric stores
    • Geological Stores of Carbon
        • Formed after deposition, compaction and cementation of sedimentary material produced by either weathering and erosion of Earth's surface, biological organismschemical precipitation - sandston, limestone
        • Formed on Earth's surface as it's sedimentary. Begins as S but must have more than 50% Calcium Carbonate to be limestone.
        • Little grains that give calcium carbonate are typically the smashed up sheet, remains a whole variety of organism.
      • Geological process release carbon into the atmosphere through volcanic outgassing at ocean ridges/ subduction zones and weathering of rock.
        • It can be related by; METAMORPHISM - when rocks appearance changes due to heat and or pressure, SUBDUCTION - rocks are forced down to into the mantel by destructive plate boundaries - oceanic crust melts cuasing co2 form the magma to make its way out via out-gassing by a volcanic eruption
        • Carbonate rocks like LS, coal and shale are deteriorated over a long time by weathering and erosion. PHYSICAL WEATHERING - physical changes like temp = freeze thaw and thermal expansion = change in appearance. Chemical Weathering - alters chemical compassion of rock through interactions with compounds like acid rain and carbonation
    • Oceanic Biological Stores of Carbon
      • Biological process in CC has a shorter timescale.
      • Oceanic Sequestration - the capture and long term storage of carbon dioxide. Total carbon in ATMOS is 50 x greater than amount in ATMOS. Its exchanged with the atmosphere on a time-scale of several hundred years
        • Molecules of CO2 enter the ocean by diffusing into sea surface water and dissolving.Once dissoloved in surface seawater, CO2 can enter into the ocean carbon cycle through three mechanisms;
          • Occurs when water in oceanic surface currents are carried from low latitudes to high latitudes on Earth
            • As they move to higher latitudes they cool = heavy to sink below sure layer and in some places all the way to deep ocean floor where i can remain for 100s years.
              • When cold water returns to the surface and warms up again it loses carbon dioxide to the atmosphere -cold holds more co2 than warm water
          • PHYTOPLANKTON, PHOTOSYNTHESIS SUNLIGHT at the ocean surface takes up co2 into the ocean
            • Once in the food web carbon moves down into the twilight and deep zones - when plankton and larger marine organismseat, deifcate, die and decompose they produce stinking carbon containing particlaes called MARINE SNOW
              • Marine Snow - a shower of organic material falling form upper waters to deep oceans
    • Biological Stores of Carbon
    • Natural and Human climate
      • Greenhouse effect - natural process by which the Earth heats and keeps the plant habitable
        • Enchanted Greenhouse effect - human activity is changing composition of atmosphere and making it more effective at trapping heat
        • Global Warming - result of enhanced greenhouse effect.  Climate Change - the result of both natural and human processes
      • Human activity - current data says it's unprecedented - so its anthropogenic. three warmest years were since 1998 and 1980. level of CO2 in atmospheric is higher than natural level and is still rising. Satellite observation since 93 = annual seal level rise is 2.1mm
      • How do humans increase GHG
        • AGRICULTURE - dirver of Methane. DEFORESTATION - trees are carbon sink by removing them we remove carbon sink. TRANSPORTATION -aviation and cars = nitros oxide, POPULATION GROWTH - more demand for consumer goods - more industry halocarbons, INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION- halocarbons increased from 1750s burins fossil fuels
    • Fossil Fuel Combustion
      • Human activity has increased CO2 outputs without any increase in natural sinks.
      • How have temp and precipitation distribution responded to changing CO2 concerntration?
        • the impact of EGHE are unclear but its generally thought - on av. the earth will become warmer, some areas will benefit but other won't. Warmer conditions will lead to more evaporation and precipitation overall buy some will get wetter while others get dryer.
        • Oceans will become warmer and will melt glaiers partially = increase in sea level. oceans will expand which will increase sea level more. Warmer ocean temp =reduction co2 being absorbed.
        • Some crops and plants will benefit growing more vigorously and using water efficiently but higher temp and shifting climate patterns may change areas where crops grow best and alter habitats
        • If climate changes soil in tundra will thaw out=store less co2, loose nutrients but other area more vegetation=can take more co2
        • Arctic Amplification
          • Arctic region is warming twice as fast as the global average, because of solar radiation reflected back = albedo effect.  Warmer temp thaws uppermost layer of permafrost allowing microbes to breakdown, plant growth increases, the amount of carbon stored reduces
          • We anticipate that residence time will lead to faster and more pronounced seasonal and long term changes in global atmospheric carbon dioxide.
      • Negative Feedback - impact which affect prevailing change in climate under global arming = cooling -balances changes -land and cloud cover.
      • Positive Feedback - increases the change in climate, would add to global arming by creating further heating - water vapour, oceans, permafrost, vegetation in tropical zones, albedo  effect


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