Carbohydrates

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  • Carbohydrates
    • CnH2nOn
    • Monosaccharides
      • Glucose, fructose and galactose are examples
    • Disaccharides
      • 2 monosaccaharides joined together by a glycosidic bond
    • Polysaccharides
      • Thousands of alpha glucose 1-4 glycosidic bonds
        • Starch Amylose +Amylopectin
        • Found in starch
          • Insoluble and metabolically inactive
            • Does not interfere with chemical reaction inside the cell
              • doesn't affect water potential
        • Coil around to form a long spiral
          • Makes them compact so a lot of starch can be stored in one place
          • Held in place by hydrogen bonds
          • Amylopectin makes some branches of 1-6 which branches it
      • Cellulose
        • thousands of beta glucose 1-4 glycosidic bonds
          • Lie straight
            • Forms hydrogen bonds with its neighbour instead
              • molecules all side by side
                • The bundles are called FIBRILS
                  • These form larger bundles called FIBRES
                    • therefore, fibres are polysaccharides which are beta glucose molecules joined by 1-4 glycosidic bonds
              • The bundles are called FIBRILS
                • These form larger bundles called FIBRES
                  • therefore, fibres are polysaccharides which are beta glucose molecules joined by 1-4 glycosidic bonds
          • very few animals have an enzyme to break down these bonds
            • and so difficult to digest
      • Glycogen
        • made up  of alpha glucose molecules linked by 1-4 glycosidic bonds
          • has branches where 1-6 glycosidic bonds are formed
            • therefore not as tightly coiled as starch
        • these stores are found in the liver and in muscles
        • can be broken down to form glucose by glycogen phosphorylase
          • this is activated when blood glucose levels are low

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