Carbohydrates

CARBOHYDRATES 

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  • Created by: EClou
  • Created on: 07-01-15 19:06
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  • Carbohydrates
    • Monosaccharides
      • e.g. GLUCOSE + FRUCTOSE
        • 1 H2O molecule per C
      • 1 Sugar unit
      • 3C = TRIose    4C=TETrose 5C=PENTose  6C=HEXose
        • Hexose=most common
          • e.g. GLUCOSE + FRUCTOSE
            • 1 H2O molecule per C
          • Ring Structure
      • Properties
        • Sweet tasting
        • H2O soluble
        • Form crystals
    • Disaccharides
      • Sucrose = main sugar in plant transport
        • Glucose + Fructose
      • Same Properties
        • Monosaccharides
          • 1 Sugar unit
          • 3C = TRIose    4C=TETrose 5C=PENTose  6C=HEXose
            • Hexose=most common
              • Ring Structure
          • Properties
            • Sweet tasting
            • H2O soluble
            • Form crystals
      • Lactose
        • Glucose + Galactose
      • Maltose = fermentation +germinating seeds
        • Glucose + Glucose
          • Alpha Glucose
            • Glucose + Galactose
            • Glucose + Fructose
      • Double Sugar
        • Formed by Condensation
    • Polysaccharides
      • Monosaccharides formed by condensation reaction giving Glycosidic  bonds
        • PLOYMERISATION
      • Properties:
        • Insoluble
          • water potential not affected
        • can't be crystallised
        • not sweet
      • Starch
        • Amylose
          • Form a coil - compact storage molecule- metabolically inactive
        • Amylopectin
          • 1,4 and 1,6- Glycosidic bonds and side branches
            • Alpha glucose
              • 1,4-Glycosidic bonds + straight chain
                • Amylose
                  • Form a coil - compact storage molecule- metabolically inactive
            • branches allow enzymes to reach G. bonds more easily + quickly release glucose
        • Energy store in plants
      • Branched or Straight chains in a Helical structure
      • Glycogen
        • Energy store in animals
        • Alpha Glucose
        • MANY side branches
          • branches allow enzymes to reach G. bonds more easily + quickly release glucose
        • v. compact - good for storage
        • 1,4 and 1,6- Glycosidic bonds and side branches
          • Alpha glucose
            • 1,4-Glycosidic bonds + straight chain
          • energy storage molecule
            • Starch
              • Amylopectin
                • Energy store in plants
          • Cellulose
            • 1,4 -Long un-branched beta glucose
            • for structural support found only in plants
            • chains held together by H bonds forming microfibrils
        • Energy source
          • respiration
        • Energy Store
          • Starch
        • Structure
          • Cellulose
        • Glucose
          • Alpha
            • H above and OH below
            • forms chains that coil
          • Beta
            • OH above and H below
            • can't be used by animals+plants
            • only forms straight chains
          • Isomers of Glucose
            • Beta
              • OH above and H below
              • can't be used by animals+plants
              • only forms straight chains
            • Alpha
              • H above and OH below
              • forms chains that coil
          • Substrate for cell respiration in all living organisms

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