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  • Carbohydrates
    • Functions
      • Provides Energy (1g provides 3.75kcal)
      • Has protein-sparing effect (so protein is used for growth and repair rather than energy)
      • Non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) - help to...
        • Prevent Constipation
        • Lower blood cholesterol levels
        • Keep blood sugar levels constant
    • Sources
      • Sugars
        • Intrinsic Sugars (found in cellular structure of foods) in whole fruits and vegetables
        • Extrinsic Sugars
          • Non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES) in honey, fruit juices, table sugar, confectionery
    • Deficiency
      • Low NSP intake is associated with,,,
        • Constipation
        • Some gut diseases such as diverticulitis and bowel cancer
    • Excess
      • Frequent consumption of food and drinks containing NMES can increase risk of dental caries
      • Too much energy (kcal) can lead to excess weight gain and obesity


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