Carbohydrates

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  • Carbohydrates
    • Sugars
      • Monosaccharides
        • With an aldehyde or ketose group
        • Glucose C6H12O6
          • 5 carbon ring = pyranose ring
          • Functions = preferred respiratory substrate, the form the sugar in mammals is transported in, and it is the building blocks of other carbohydrates
        • Fructose C6H12O6
          • 4 carbon ring = furanose ring
        • Galactose C6H12O6
        • Other monosaccharides
          • Deoxyribose (5C) for DNA
          • Ribose (5C) for RNA
          • Glyceraldehyde (3C) which is an intermediate in respiration
      • Disacchardies
        • Without an aldehyde or ketose group
        • = 2 monosaccharides chemically joined together
          • By a strong COVALENT GLYCOSIDIC bond
            • Which is the result of a condensation reaction
              • This produces a molecule of water
              • The opposite of this is hydrolysis
        • Examples:
          • Sucrose C12H22O11
            • Glucose + Fructose
          • Lactose C12H22O11
            • Glucose + Galactose
          • Maltose C12H22O11
            • Glucose + Glucose
      • General Properties
        • Soluble
        • Sweet
    • Non-Sugars
      • General Properties
        • Insoluble
        • Non-reducing
        • Not sweet
      • Polysaccharides
        • Glycogen
          • alpha glucose
          • Store of glucose in animals
          • Similar to amylopectin except branching occurs more frequently
          • Compact and easy to store
          • stored in liver and muscle cells
        • Starch
          • alpha glucose
          • Store of glycogen in plants
          • Mixture of 2 polysaccharides
            • Amylose (20%)
              • Straight chain, 1-4 glycosidic bonds
              • unbranched
            • Amylopectin (80%)
              • branching approx every 10 residules
                • 1-6 glycosidic bonds holds side branches onto the main chain
        • Cellulose
          • Beta glucsoe
          • Used in cell walls
    • contain C, H and O in a ratio of 1:2:!
  • C1 and C4 are joined, and 1 of the Os bridges the gap
    • Which is the result of a condensation reaction
      • This produces a molecule of water
      • The opposite of this is hydrolysis

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