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  • Carbohydrates
    • Monosaccharides
      • Individual sugar molecule
      • Triose has 3 carbon atoms and is associated with metabolism
      • Pentose has 5 carbon atoms and is associated with DNA
      • Hexose has 6 carbon atoms and is glucose with the general formula: C6H12O6
      • General formula= (CH20)n
      • Glucose has  two isomers: Alpha and Beta glucose and they are biologically different
      • Cellulose= Beta    Starch= Alpha
      • A source of energy in respiration
      • Constituents of nucleotides
      • Building blocks for larger molecules e.g glycogen, starch and cellulose
    • Disaccharides
      • Composed of two monosaccharide units bonded together by a glycosidic bond
      • Formed by a condensation reaction
      • Glycosidic bonds are separated by hydrolysis
      • Maltose is made by     glucose and glucose
      • Lactose is made by glucose and galactose
      • Sucrose is made by glucose and fructose
    • Polysaccharides
      • A polymer which is formed from many monomers that are linked by glycosidic bonds
      • Glucose is the main source of energy in many cells and it must be stored in an appropriate form
        • We convert glucose into a storage product know as starch to stop water being taken into the cell by osmosis
      • Starch
        • Grains are found in high concentrations in seeds and storage organs such as potato tubes
        • Made of alpha glucose molecules bonded together forming two different products:
          • Amylose
            • Linear, unbranched molecules with 1-4 glycosidic bonds which creates an alpha helix
            • Component of starch and also main food storage material in plants
          • Amylopectin
            • Monomers joined with 1-4 glycosidic bonds and also cross linked with alpha 1-6 glycosidic bonds which can fit inside the amylose
            • Storage material in plants
      • Glycogen
        • Made of alpha glucose molecules
        • 1-6 and 1-4 glycosidic bonds
      • Cellulose
        • Made of beta glucose
        • Beta linkage because adjacent glucose is rotated 180 degrees
        • Required  for strength
    • Organic compounds containingthe elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen


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