Carbohydrates

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  • Carbohydrates
    • Functions
      • Energy (1g provides 3.75kcal)
      • Protein sparer (so that protein can be used for its primary functions)
      • NSP
        • soluble
          • slow down digestion of carbs. control blood sugar. reduce risk of CHD
        • insoluble
          • absorbs water and increases in bulk. helps faeces become soft and bulky. keep gut in good condidtion
    • sources
      • sugar
        • cakes
        • sugary drinks
        • sugar
      • starches
        • bread
        • potatoes
        • pasta
      • NSP
        • insoluble
          • wholegrain cereals
        • soluble
          • beans
          • lentils
    • deficiency
      • NSP
        • Diverticular disease
        • Constipation
        • Bowel cancer
    • excess
      • any extra carb that is not immediately needed may be converted into
        • glycogen (temporary energy store in the liver and muscles)
        • body fat (converted in liver and stored I adipose tissue)
    • chemical structure
      • monosaccharides
        • common base unit
          • glucose
          • Galactose
          • fructose
      • disaccharides
        • 2 mono units
          • sucrose
          • lactose
          • maltose
      • polysccharides
        • many mono units
          • cellulose
          • glycogen

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