C9: Crude Oil and Fuels

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  • Created on: 28-04-19 16:18
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  • C9 - Crude Oil and Fuels
    • 9.1: Hydro carbons
      • Crude Oil Formation
        • 4. pressure and heat increases, fossils turn to crude oil
        • 3. over time the mud, silt and sediment will turn to rock
        • 5. the oil then rises through permeable rock until it reaches impermeable rock
        • 2. silt, mud and sediment fall on top of it
        • 1. dead living organisms falls down to the bottom of the sea
      • Definitions
        • hydrocarbons
          • contains hydrogen and carbon only
        • crude oil
          • a mixture of hydrocarbons
        • alkanes
          • hydrocarbons with single bonds
      • Alkanes
        • ethane
          • C2H6
          • 2 carbons
        • Butane
          • C4H10
          • 4 carbons
        • methane
          • CH4
          • 1 carbon
        • propane
          • C3H8
          • 3 carbons
        • Other info
          • alkanes are saturated and contain single covalent bonds
          • its not very useful straight out of the ground as it's a mixture with different properties
          • GENERAL FORMULA: CnH2n+2
          • you separate hydrocarbons using fractional distillation
          • alkanes end in ane
    • 9.2: Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil
      • Smaller Hydrocarbons
        • least viscose
        • most flammable
        • most volatile
      • Larger Hydrocarbons
        • most viscose
        • least flammable
        • least volatile
      • Use of fractions
        • gases
          • gasoline / petrol
            • kerosene / paraffin
              • diesel oil
                • lubricating oil and waxes
                  • fuel oil
                    • tar / bitumen
                  • heated crude oil in --->
    • 9.3: Burning Hydrocarbons
      • Combustion
        • practical diagram for combustion
        • equations for combustion
          • decane
            • decane+ oxygen -> water + carbon dioxide
            • C10H22 + 15.5O2 -> 11H2O + 10CO2
          • propane
            • propane+ oxygen -> water + carbon dioxide
            • C3H8 + 5O2 -> 4H2O + 3CO2
          • ethane
            • ethane + oxygen -> water + carbon dioxide
            • C2H6 + 3.5O2 -> 3H2O + 2CO2
          • methane
            • methane + oxygen -> water + carbon dioxide
            • CH4 + 2O2 -> 2H2O + CO2
      • complete combustion
        • CONDITIONS: plenty of O2
        • when hydrocarbons burn in a plentiful supply of oxygen they are fully oxidised
        • PRODUCTS: CO2 + H2O
        • HYDRO = +O2 (goes to water or hydrogen oxide). CARBONS = + O2 (goes to CO2)
      • Burning Fuels
        • fuel = a substance which releases useful energy when it is burnt
        • most fuels contain carbon and / or hydrogen, and may also contain some sulfur
      • Tests
        • Carbon Dioxide test
          • lime water goes cloudy
        • Oxygen test
          • relights a glowing splint
        • Water test
          • cobalt chloride paper turns pink
      • incomplete combustion
        • CONDITIONS: not enough  O2
        • PRODUCTS: CO + H2O
          • CO = carbon monoxide, poisonous (colourless and odourless)
    • 9.4: Cracking
      • cracking converts the longer chain hydrocarbons into shorter, more useful hydrocarbons including alkenes
      • Conditions
        • the reaction requires high temperatures (roughly 800 degrees Celsius) and a catalyst - aluminium oxide
      • Cracking Summary
        • 2. Long hydrocarbons can be broken down (cracked) into smaller more useful hydrocarbons, including alkenes
        • 3. This process requires high temperatures and a catalyst
        • 1. Hydrocarbons with long chains have limited use due to their lack of flammability
        • 4. It is a type of thermal decomposition
      • Crack the equation
        • use whats given in the question then fill the gaps
        • C10H22 --> C8H18 + C2H4

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