C7.1

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  • C7.1
    • The Chemical Industry
      • Examples of Large Scale Chemicals
        • Ammonia
        • Sulfuric Acid
        • Sodium Hydroxide
        • Phosphoric Acid
      • Small Scale Chemicals
        • Fine Chemicals
        • Drugs
        • Food Additives
        • Fragrances
      • Chemical Product Research
        • 1. Testing potential catalysts using a process of trial and error
        • 2. Making computor models of the reaction to try to work out which substance works as a catalyst
        • 3. Designing or refining the manufacture of the catalyst to make sure it is safe and mass produced
        • 4. Investigating the risks to the environment of using new catalyst and trying to minimise them
        • 5. Monitoring the quality of the product
      • Government Regulations
        • They protect people and the environment
        • 1. Using Chemicals: for example sulfuric acid is sprayed on potato fields to destry the leaves and stalks of the potato plant
        • 2. Storage they have to be in sealed containers
        • 3. Transport they have hazard symbols and identification numbers
    • Producing Chemicals
      • Stages of producing chemicals
        • 1. Preparation of feedsstock
        • 2. Synthesis
        • 3. Separation of products
        • 4. Monitoring the purity of product and handling of by-products and wastes
      • 1. Raw materials are converted into feedstocks
        • 1. Raw materials are the naturally occuring substances which are needed for example crude oil and natural gas
        • 2. Feedstocks are the actual reactants needed for the process for example hydrogen and ethanol
        • 3. The raw materials usually have to be purified or changed in some way to make the feedstock
      • 2. Synthesis
        • The feedstocks are converted by teh magic of chemicstry products. The conditions have to be carefully controlled to make sure the reaction happens
      • 3. The products are separated
        • 1. Chemical reations usually produce the substance you want and some other chemicals known as by-products
        • 2. You might also have some left over reactants
      • 4. The purity of the product is monitored
        • 1. Even after the best efforts are made to separate the product from everything else, it sometimes still has other things mixed in- it is not completly pure
        • 2. The puriety of the product has to be monitored to make sure it is between certain levels
        • 3. Different industries need different levels of purity
      • 5. By products and waste are dealt with
        • 1. Where possible, by products are sold or used in another reaction
        • 2. If the reaction was exxothermic, there may be waste heat. Heat exchangers can use excess heat to produce steam or hot water for totehr reactions
        • 3. Waste products have to be carefully disposed of
    • Sustainability
      • 1. Will the raw materials run out?
        • It is great if your feedstock is renewable- you can keep on using as much as you like. The trouble is, if it is not renewable it is going to run out. And this could mean big problems for future generations
      • 2. How good is the Atom economy
        • The atom economy of a reaction tells you how much of the mass of the reactants ends up as useful products
      • 3. What do i do with the waste products
        • Waste products can be expensive to remove and dispose of responsibly. They are likely to take up space and cause pollution
      • 4. What are the energy costs
        • If a reaction needs a lot of energy it will be very expensive. Providing energy often involves burning fossil fuels yet the energy could be used elsewhere
      • 5. Will it damage the environment
        • Clearly if the reaction produces harmful chemicals it is not going to do any good for the environement
      • 6. What are the health and safety risks
        • There are no laws in place that companies must follow to make sure their workers and the public are not put in harms way.
      • 7. Are there any benefits or risks to society
        • A factory creates jobs for the local community and brings money into the area
      • 8. Is it profitable
        • This is the big question for most companies- buisnesses are out to make money after all. If the costs are higher than the income then it will not be profitable

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