gcse science chemistry unit C6 part 2

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  • Created by: charlie
  • Created on: 07-05-13 22:13
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  • C6
    • hardness of water
      • wont form a lather
      • forms limescale
        • thermal insulator
      • caused by
        • Ca2+ and Mg2+
        • magnesium sulphate dissolves
        • calcium sulphate only a little
        • calcium carbonate
          • reacts with acids
            • CO2+H2O=H2CO3(carbonic acid)
          • CO2+H2O+CaCO3=Ca(HCO3)2
      • temporary
        • removed by boiling
          • calcium hydrogen-carbonate thermally decomposes
      • both type
        • removed by sodium carbonate
          • carbonate ions join to calcium ions forming insoluble precipitate
            • Ca2+(aq) + CO3 2- (aq) =CaCO3 (s)
        • ion exchange resin
          • sodium or hydrogen ions replace
    • fats and oils
      • esthers
        • acid+alcohol
          • fatty acid+glycerol
      • oil-in-water emulsion
        • milk
      • water-in-oil emulsion
        • butter
      • vegetable oils
        • produce biodiesel
          • similar properties to normal fuels
          • provides lots of energy
    • plant oils
      • unsaturated C=C
        • monounsaturated one C=C
        • polyunsaturated >C=C
        • tested using bromine water
          • decolourise to colourless as Br attach
          • stays orange
        • hydrogenated
          • liquid at room temp
            • hardened= hydorgen+nickel catalyst (60 'C)
              • opens out double bonds (margarine)
                • partially hydrogenated vegetable oil
                  • increase  cholesterol
      • affect health
        • unsaturated
          • vegetable fats and oils
            • reduce blood cholesterol
        • saturated
          • animal fats and oils
            • increase  cholesterol
    • alcohols
      • C(n)H(2n+1)OH
      • M,E,P,B...
      • fermentation
        • glucose=ethanol +carbon dioxide
          • then fractionally distilled=pure ethanol
        • enzymes in yeast
          • optimum temp 25-50
          • prevent O2- vinegar
        • F VS H
          • H: continuous, expensive,crude oil,pure,95% yields
          • F: batch,renewable (ethanol), not pure,low atom economy, low yields
      • hydrating ethene
        • industrially
        • ethene+water(steam)=ethanol
        • 300'c
        • 70 atmospheres
        • phosphoric acid catalyst
        • F VS H
          • H: continuous, expensive,crude oil,pure,95% yields
          • F: batch,renewable (ethanol), not pure,low atom economy, low yields
    • detergents
      • hydrophilic head (loves the water)
      • hydrophobic tail (loves oil)
        • intermolecular forces means hydrophobic attaches to oil and lifts off
      • dry cleaning
        • uses solvents completely dissolve oil
        • weak intermole. beween solvent
          • weak intermole. between oil
            • intermole. form between solvent and oil
              • solvent removed with grease
      • washing at lower temp. saves energy
        • biological detergents- enzymes  catalysts
        • wash delicate clothes

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