GCSE science chemistry unit C5

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  • Created by: charlie
  • Created on: 02-05-13 21:38
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  • C5
    • the mole
      • 6.023x10^23
      • one mole=R.A.M
      • no. of moles= mass(g)/relative formula mass(Ar or Mr)
      • R.A.M compared to carbon-12
        • compared to 1/12 of the atom
    • equilibrium
      • reached when P=R at same rate
      • shift to right- Pincrease Rdecreases
      • shift to left- Pdecreases Rincreases
      • change by
        • not catalyst
        • temp
          • if exo. E will try and make end. VICE VERSA
        • pressure
          • if inc. E will try and dec. move to less moles  VICE VERSA
        • concen.
          • inc. R then E moves right VICE VERSA
    • reactants
      • limiting reactant
        • when used up
      • excess reactant
    • acids
      • strong
        • HCL
          • H+ disassociate fully at once
          • ionise completely in water
          • better conductor
            • higher concen. in acid- more charge
      • weak
        • CH3COOH
          • only few H+ released
            • E on left
          • same concen. slower rate of reaction
            • low collision frequency
            • H+ concen. dec. E shifts to allow H+ released
              • drip feed
      • both react with..
        • Mg gives H2
        • CaCO3 gives CO2
      • amount of products the same
        • concen. the same- no. of molecules the same
    • pH of solution
      • how many H+ in it
    • contact process
      • makes sulphuric acid
      • compromised temp (450)
      • pressure
        • 2 moles R 3 moles P
          • E already on right
          • no need to increase
      • catalyst
        • V2O5
    • Haber process
      • high pressure
      • low temp. (200)
    • empirical formula
      • rations
      • C2H6=CH3
    • gas vol.
      • gas syringe
        • stiff
        • accurate to one cm^3
      • upturned cyclinder/ burette
        • nearest o.1 cm^3
        • H2, CL2 and  NH3 dissolve in water
      • mass of gas produced
        • release gas into room
        • most accurate
    • titration's
      • amount acid to neutralise alkali
        • changes colour
          • universal indicator
            • range
          • litmus
            • red-purple
          • phenolphthalein
            • clear-pink
    • precipitation reactions
      • solution+solution=insoluble substance (precipitate)
      • test for sulphate ions
        • add dilute HCl+BaCl2
          • white precip. of barium sulphate
            • original was sulphate
      • test for halide ions
        • add dilute HNO3+lead nitrate
          • chloride ions
            • white precip.
          • bromide ions
            • cream precip.
          • iodide ions
            • yellow precip.
      • ions in molten/solution
        • free to move and form precip.
          • high collision freq- quick reaction
    • preparing insoluble salts
      • wanted ions in solution
        • mix solutions- leaving precip.
          • filer through funnel
            • rinse with distilled water  washing away soluble salts
              • scrape  salt and dry

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