C4 - The Periodic Table

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  • C4 - The Periodic Table
    • Creation of the Periodic Table
      • Early 1800s - Dobereiner notices several groups of three elements with similar properties
      • Newlands arranged the elements in order of relative atomic mass
        • Every eighth element had similar properties
        • His pattern only worked for the first 16 elements
      • Mendeleev Showed there were patterns in the properties of all of the elements when arranged in relative atomic mass order
        • He made a sensible pattern by leaving gap for missing elements
        • He predicted the missing elements' properties & scientists later found these missing elements
    • Introduction to the Periodic Table
      • The elements are arranged in order of proton number
      • There are repeating patterns in the element's properties
      • The vertical columns are called groups & elements in a group have similar properties
      • The horizontal rows are called periods
      • The elements to the left of a stepped line between aluminium, silicon, and so on have special properites.
        • The elements to the left of the stepped line are metals.
    • Group 1: the alkali Metals
      • Alkali metals include the elements: lithium (Li), Sodium (Na), & potassium (K)
      • They have low densities, so they float on water
      • They have low melting & boiling points
      • They're shiny when freshly cut
      • They quickly tarnish in damp air as they react with oxygen
      • Alkali metals react with water to make hydrogen & an alkaline solution
      • Going down the group, the reactions get more vigorous.
      • Alkali metals act vigorously with chlorine gas to make chlorides
        • the chlorides are colourless crystalline solids
    • Group 7: the Halogens
      • Halogens include the elements:
        • Chlorine - a pale green gas (Cl)
        • Bromine - a deep read liquid with brown vapour (Br)
        • Iodine - a grey solid with purple vapour (I)
      • Going down the group, melting point & boiling point increase
      • Halogen molecules are diatomic- they're made from two atoms joined together
      • Going down group 7, the elements become less reactive
      • When one halogen is put into a reaction with another halogen which is less reactive then the newly-added halogen, it can displace it.

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