C3: Topics 4 and 5

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  • C3: Topics 4 and 5
    • Fermentation and Alcohol
      • Different drinks contain different amounts of alcohol. Beer is normally 4-6% and vodka is 40% ethanol.
      • Fermentation: Ethanol (C2H5OH) is produced from carbohydrates by a process called fermentation. The carbohydrates can be sugars from fruit, such as grapes, or from the breakdown of starch from wheat. Yeast is a fungus. It provides enzymes needed for fermentation to happen.
        • sugar (C6H12O6 (aq) ) ---> ethanol (2C2H5OH (aq) ) + carbon dioxide (2CO2 (g) ).
      • Fractional Distillation: it is needed to obtain more concentrated solutions of ethanol.
        • Effects of Alcohol: Short term; slower reaction time, loss of coordination, vomiting. Long term; damage to the heart and liver.
    • Ethanol Production
      • Making Ethanol from Ethene: Ethanol is not just made using fermentation, it can also be made by reacting ethane with steam with help from a catalyst. this is a hydration reaction because water is added. the ethane needed is made by cracking crude oil fractions.
      • Making Ethane from Ethanol: Ethene can be made by heating ethanol to high temperatures with a catalyst to speed the reaction up. this is a dehydration reaction.
    • Homologous Series
      • Homologous series is a series of compounds that; have the same general formula; as the number of carbon atoms increase, the boiling point increases; have similar chemical properties, for example they are all flammable.
    • Ethanoic Acid
      • Ethanol can be oxidised to form ethanoic acid, this can happen when a bottle of wine is opened and also can be used to make vinegar. Vinegar contains dilute ethanoic acid. it is used as flavouring and a preservative because bacteria cannot survive in the acidic environment.
      • Ethanoic acid has similar properties to acids, for example they react with bases to form salts called ethanoates. Sodium Hydroxide + Ethanoic Acid ---> Sodium Ethanoate + Water. Calcium Carbonate + Ethanoic Acid ---> Calcium Ethanoate + Water+ Carbon Dioxide.
      • REMEMBER! If any metal reacts with an acid the gas produced is hydrogen.
    • Esters
      • When alcohol and a carboxylic acid react they produce an ester and water. For example when they are warmed with a sulphuric acid catalyst, ethanol and ethanoic acid react they form ethyl ethanoate and water. Esters have a nice smell so are often used in perfumes and flavourings in food like pear drops.
      • Polyesters are polymers made from two types of monomer. One type ofmonomer has a carboxyl group at each endand the other has ahydroxyl group at each end. The two types of monomer react; making polymer molecules containing many ester bonds. Polyesters are very long thin fibres, they can be woven together  to make fabrics. Polyesters are also used to make drink bottles which can be recycled to make fleece, which is used to make clothes.
    • Fats, Oils and Soap
      • Making Soap: Oils and fats are esters. Soap is made by boiling oils or fats with an alkali solution. The esters break down and form: An alcohol called glycerol, Sodium or potassium salts of carboxylic acids with long carbon chains. These salts are the soaps. For example, sodium and potassium stearate are soaps.


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