C1- air quality

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  • C1- Air quality
    • evolution of the atmposphere
      • phase 1- earth's surface molten, cooled down and crust formed, volcanos gave out nitrogen and CO2, oceans formed from cooling water vapour
      • phase 2- green plants, CO2 dependant, when died carbon was locked in- fossil fuels
        • nitrogen and oxygen levels are constant but CO2 and pollutants fluctuate- humans
      • phase 3- complex organisms developed as O2 rose, some CO2 animals died out.
      • 21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen, 1% argon and minimal other gases like CO2 and water vapour
    • human activity- pollutants
      • mainly from combustion
      • carbon dioxide- climate change
      • carbon monoxide- oxygen in blood decreases- death or injury
      • sulfur dioxide- acid rain
    • chemical reactions- rearranging atoms in reactants to get different products
      • products and reactants often have different properties
      • atoms- tiny particles. Molecules- groups of atoms
      • hydrocarbons- a molecule containing only hydrogen and carbon
        • coal is impure and so is not a hydrocarbon, although it is mainly carbon
      • carbon dioxide
        • photosynse-this removes it from the air
        • enhanced greenhouse effect- global warming
        • combustion and respiration produce it
      • combustion- type of chemical reaction, when hydrocarbons burn they react with O2, this is an oxidation reaction
      • carbon monoxide
        • CO- when breathed in not a lot of oxygen so body cant function
        • produced when not a lot of oxygen in combustion- incomplete burning
      • carbon particulates
        • bits of carbon that float around
        • causes problems when inhaled
      • sulfur pollution
        • sulfur and oxygen- sulfur dioxide, ends up in atmosphere, reacts with water making surfuric acud
          • erodes soft rock, lakes become acidic, killing wildlife
      • nitrogen di/oxide
        • NO- formed in hot places with minimal oxygen- into atmosphere
          • make nitric acid (acid rain)
        • NO2- formed in hot, oxygen rich environments
          • make nitric acid (acid rain)
    • reducing pollution
      • human change- bike, solar etc
      • fuel purity increase- less SO2 pollution
      • tech- hybrid, electric, biofuel etc in cars
      • catalytic converters- turns harmful molecules into unharmful ones
        • in most cars

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