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  • Brachiopods
    • Morphology
      • Pedicle Valve
        • Diductor muscle attachment
        • Pedicle Foramen
          • Pedicle
        • Deltidal plates
        • Adductor muscle attachment
      • Brachial Valve
        • Cardinal Process
        • Brachidium
          • Lophophore
      • Growth lines
      • Commissure
      • Umbo
      • Muscle scars
      • Cilla
    • Adaptations
      • Turbulent water
        • Large pedicle opening, the support a large pedicle form secure substrate attachment
        • Strongly ribbed valves to strengthen shell against wave action
        • folded/zigzagged margin reduces the amount of sediment which can enter the shells when the valves are open
        • Thick heavy shell to provide extra stability
      • Quiet water
        • May have a median fold/sulcis, to prevent mixing of fresh and stale water and waste
        • May have extensions of valves to form 'wings' which provide a large surface area to prevent sinking into the sediment
        • smooth weakly ribbed valves, due to the quiet conditions
        • no pedicle opening as there is no need for a pedicle attachment
      • Soft, muddy substrate
        • large flat with a large resting area to provide a large surface area to prevent sinking into the sediment
        • one margin of the shell may be turned up away from the sediment to ensure some of the shell is outside of the sediment form feeding
    • Types of brachiopods
      • Terebratulids
        • Devonian to recent (extant)
        • Astrophic hinge line (curved)
        • circular pedicle foramen
        • smooth ovoid valves
        • found in oolites and sandstones. could live in high-energy environment
      • Productids
        • Devonian to permian (extinct)
        • thick semicircular shells
        • Strophic hinge line
        • both valves have radiating ribs and hollow tubular spines
        • no pedicle opening, so probably used long fragile spines for anchorage to the substrate
      • Spiriferids
        • Ordovician to Jurassic (extinct)
        • long strophic hinge line
        • lophophore support system is spiralled in shape
        • often have a fold and sulcus in the middle of each valve
      • Rhynchonellids
        • ordovician to recent (extant)
        • Astrophic hinge line
        • strongly ribbed valves
        • zigzagged commisure
        • small pedicle foramen
        • strong fold and sulcus
    • Cambrian to recent (extant)
    • Brachiopoda


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