bonding and structure

View mindmap
  • Bonding and structure
    • Ionic Bonding
      • metal and non-metal
      • the metal atom loses an electron to form a positive ion
        • the oppositely charged ions are strongly attracted to each other by electrostatic charges
          • the non-metal gains these electrons to form a negatively charged ion.
      • the non-metal gains these electrons to form a negatively charged ion.
      • dot and cross diagrams show the arrangement of electrons in an atom or ion.
      • ionic compounds
        • regular lattice structure
        • high melting and boiling points
        • dissolve easily and can conduct when dissolved or molten
        • can't conduct electricity when solid
        • strong electrostatic attraction
    • covalent bonding
      • non-metal and non-metal
      • sharing electrons
      • very strong electrostatic forces
      • can use a dot and cross diagram to demonstrate this
      • giant covalent structures
        • they are macro molecules
        • high melting and boiling points
        • don't conduct electricity
        • eg allotropes of carbon
          • Allotropes of carbon
            • diamond
              • giant covalent structure
              • each carbon atom forms four covalent bonds
              • very high melting point
              • don't conduct electricity
            • graphite
              • each carbon atom forms three bonds
              • arranged in hexagons
              • high melting points
              • conduct electricity
                • delocalised electron
            • graphene
              • is one layer of graphite
              • very strong
              • light
              • one atom thick
              • can conduct
            • fullerenes
              • shaped like hollow balls
              • can be used to cage other molecules
              • can be used to deliver a drug in the body
              • make good catalysts, as they have a high surface area
      • simple molecular substances
        • strong covalent bonds
        • weak intermolecular forces
          • as the size of the molecules increase the intermolecular force increses
        • low melting and boiling point
        • normally gas or liquid
        • don't conduct electricity
          • no free electrons
      • polymers
        • lots of small units linked together to form a long molecule
        • joined together by strong covalent bonds
        • intermolecular forces are still weaker than ionic and giant covalent
          • so have a lower boiling point that them
    • metallic bonding
      • metal and metal
      • giant regular structure
      • the electrons in the outer shell are delocalised
      • the electrostatic attraction between positive and negative ions are strong
      • most are solid
      • malleable
      • alloys are harder than pure metals because in an alloy the atoms have different sizes so it makes it harder for them to slide over each other

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »See all Structure and bonding resources »