Bloody code and Transportaion

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  • BLOODY CODE AND TRANSPORTATION
    • TRANSPORTATION
      • MAY 1287 - first fleet of ships to Australia - transportation had already been around for 100yrs but the American colonies gained indepedence
        • Prisons and hulks becoming overcrowded
      • 160,000 people sentenced to Transportation - 7yrs, 14yrs or life
        • 80% were thieves, 3% violent crimes - only 25,000 women transported
      • WHY INTRODUCE TRANSPORTATION
        • Alternative to hanging needed
        • It would reduce the crime in Britain by removing the criminals
        • Australia was unknown so it would have  acted as a deterrent to criminals
        • Transportation would help Britain to claim Australia as part of the British Empire and claim resources
        • Transportation would reform criminals - forced to work and learn skills
      • THE VOYAGE
        • 9 month voyage, 1830s - 4 month voyage and only 1% of convicts died on the voyage
        • Cramped and unpleasant conditions - disease spread easily by rats
        • ARRIVAL
          • Assigned to settlers - sentence became whatever work their master gave them
          • Masters provided food, clothes and shelter
            • Good conduct won a 'ticket of leave' for early relase
      • TRANSPORTATION SUCCESSFUL
        • Courts prepared to sentence people to transportation
        • Had been successful in reforming convicts
        • Australia was cleralty established as part of the British empire
      • TRANSPORTATION UNSUCCESSFUL
        • Crime rate hadn't fallen
        • Seen as a 'summer excursion' and a opputunity to set  a new life
        • Prisons were cheaper to run
        • 1851 - Gold discovered in Australia so everyone wanted to go to Australia
      • HARSH / SOFT PUNISHMENT
        • SOFT - Ticket of leave, escaped death, could be treated well by masters
        • HARSH - Terrible conditions in Tasmania - prisoners whipped and forced to do hard physical labour, separated from families
    • BLOODY CODE
      • People were executed for major and minor crimes such as poaching and selling under-weight bread in the 17th century to the early 19th century
      • Reasons to introduce the Bloody Code: Used as a deterrent for criminals, Rise in crime - no police force and people were more aware of crime, protect wealthy landowners (MPs) property from the poor
      • Executions were always public to act as a deterrent to others
      • The Waltham Black Act in 1723 added 50 new crimes to the Bloody Code - by 1815, 225 crimes punishable by death
      • REASONS TO ABOLISH THE BLOODY CODE/ UNSUCCESSFUL PUNISHMENT
        • Juries stopped finding people guilty of minor crimes as they thought execution was too harsh
        • Public executions were now seen as entertainment to the public so were no longer a deterrent to criminals, they became the place for cheering and fights
        • Attitudes towards punishments were now changing - REFORM INSTEAD OF PUNISHMENT
      • SUCCESSFUL PUNISHMENT
        • Decrease in the crime rate - successful deterrent
        • Number of executions decreased
        • Protected the wealthy
      • ABOLISHED IN THE EARLY 19TH CENTURY

Comments

Jasmine Jepson

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